Study sets, textbooks, questions
Upgrade to remove ads
LSU OSC 1005: Final (Marine Plants)
Terms in this set (105)
Present in various photosynthetic plants and which assist in light uptake and the transfer of its energy to chlorophyll.
Collective term for nonvascular plants (lack vessels to conduct sap) possessing chlorophyll and capable of photosynthesis.
- Primary producers
- Depths in the water column is equal to carbo hydrates in the production of respiration
- An organism that makes its own food by photosynthesis or chemosynthesis
Used by plants for chemical synthesis, growth, and reproduction.
Process which does not require light to create carbohydrates, releases energy in chemical bonds of hydrogen and sulfur containing compounds to construct glucose from carbon dioxide.
Pigment responsible for trapping sunlight and transferring its energy to chemical bonds.
- Most abundant zooplankton
- Account for 70% of individuals
- Tiny, shrimp-like animals
- Lower part of photic zone
- Insufficient light for photosynthesis
- Less than 2% of world's ocean volume
- Marine plants trap more energy than they use
- Sufficient light for plant production
- The upper layer of the photic zone in which net photosynthesis gain occurs, photosynthesis exceeds respiration in the euphotic zone, but not always in the photic zone
__________ leads to respiration.
__________ leads to carbohydrate uptake.
Group of organisms linked together by complex feeding relationships in which the flow of energy can be followed from complex formations by primary producers through consumers.
Immediate organic material produced from inorganic substances.
An organism that derives food from other organisms because it is unable to synthesize its own food molecules.
Nitrogen, phosphorus, and iron are limiting. Carbon and water are not limiting for marine plants.
Nearshore coastal waters - not part of the benthic zone.
Plants having no vessels for transport of sap and lacking leaves, stems, and roots.
Process by which autotrophs bind light energy into chemical bonds for food with the aid of chlorophyll and nutrients. The process uses carbon dioxide and water as raw materials and produces carbohydrates and oxygen.
- Trophic Pyramid: 1**
- Plantlike, usually single-celled members of the plankton community (autotrophs)
Transforms light energy into chemical bond energy (manufactures carbohydrates to food molecules).
Period of rapid phytoplankton growth where non-conservative nutrients (nitrates, phosphates, iron, silicates) are consumed and depleted.
Drift in the water column or swim weakly in the ocean, going where the currents go, unable to move consistently against waves or current flow.
Release of stored energy from chemical bonds (carbohydrates broken down, oxygen consumption) and carbon dioxide and water are formed as by-products (harvest energy).
A feeding step within a trophic pyramid // Open-ocean food web
Algae with bodies consisting of a single cell.
Ex: Diatoms and Dinoflagellates
- Trophic level: 2**
- Animal members of the plankton community
- Heterotrophic plankton
- Most numerous primary consumers of the ocean
Single-celled dinoflagellates that are symbiotic with coral.
Nearly all of the energy used by living organisms is derived __________ or __________ from sunlight.
Plants use sunlight as a source of energy to __________ carbon dioxide and nitrogen.
Inorganic compound are converted to _________ forms in living tissue.
Light energy transformed into chemical bond energy via __________.
respiration equation (animals & plants)
- Large molecules being broken down
- Energy liberated which is used for metabolism
3. Breaks down
- Requires sun & nutrients
- (6) Carbon Dioxide + (6) Water= Glucose & Oxygen
- Bottom of the ocean
- 2/5 productivity in the ocean
Animals must eat __________ to gain an adequate food supply.
All organisms (plants & animals) carry out __________.
Beginning products of __________ are the end products of __________, and visa versa.
trophic pyramid/ levels
5: 1 kg / Tuna
4: 10 kg / Medium fish
3: 100 kg / Small fish
2: 1,000 kg / Small herbivores
1: 10,000 kg / Primary producers
For each kg of tuna, _____ kg of mid-size fish must be consumed with around _____ kg of small fish.
tropic pyramid/ feeding steps
5: Tuna (top consumer)
4: Mid-size fish (consumers)
3: Small fish & larvae (secondary consumers)
2: Zooplankton (primary consumers)
1: Phytoplankton (primary producers)
Mass of consumers becomes __________ towards the top of the Trophic Pyramid.
- Producers, consumers, 10% rule
10% of consumed energy is stored in consumer's flesh, the rest is lost as heat and work by organisms.
Each tropic level is _____ of the mass of the level directly below.
measuring primary productivity
- Expressed in g carbon bound into organic material per square meter of ocean surface area per year
- Photosynthesis equation
- Remote sensing
oceanic carbohydrate production contributions
- Phytoplankton: 90-96%
- Seaweeds: 2-5%
- Chemosynthetic organisms: 2-5%
total ocean productivity
- Ranges from 75 to 150 g C/m^2/yr
- Marine: 35-50 billion metric tons of carbon bound per year**
- However, total plant biomass (mass of living tissue)
- Oceans: 1-2 billion metric tons
- Land: 600-1,000 billion metric tons
**Approximately equal to
terrestrial productivity- 50-70 billion metric tons per year.
factors that limit productivity
- Carbon dioxide (less likely to be a limiting factor)
- Sunlight (if there's too much)
Marine total production about equal to __________ production.
accessory pigment (marine plants)
Can absorb the dim blue light at depth and transfer energy to adjacent chlorophyll molecules // Masking pigments
What colors may accessory pigments be?
- Gives seaweeds their characteristic color
- Brown, tan, olive green, or red
Absence of accessory pigments allows the __________ of __________ to shine through.
bright green; chlorophyll
- Convert about 50% of sun's energy into carbohydrates
- Name = "to cut through"**
- 5,600 species
- Most are round (some are elongated, branched, or triangular)
- Have chlorophyll and accessory pigments for more effective light absorption.
- Reproduce by dividing in half and drifting apart & auxospores.
**Reference to perforation patterns
Yellow or brown pigments (accessory pigments).
- Most are autotrophs
- Responsible for red tide
- Produce potent toxins to filter feeders (oysters, clams, scallops, mussels)**
**Toxic to man
Single-celled autotrophs covered with disks of calcium carbonates
Internal support structure made of silica.
- May contribute much more to primary productivity
**Pico: one trillionth
- Not for zooplankton (phytoplankton)
- Only for autotrophs
- Always below depth of greatest productivity
- Sunlit layer of water at the ocean's surface:
- Tropics extends around 200 meters
- Mid-latitude water extends down to around 100 meters**
**More abundant organisms
oxygen minimum zone
- Oxygen depleted by the animals and not replaced by phytoplankton
- Decomposition of biological debris
good life zone
bad life zone
__________ in __________ zone.
Wherever there's __________, theres __________.
tropical, polar, temperate
Seasonal variations of phytoplankton productivity.
__________ regions has the lowest climate productivity.
- Water generally deficient in surface nutrients
- Nearly empty of visible plankton**
- Lowest climate productivity
**Due to strong thermocline which discourages vertical mixing necessary to bring up nutrients from the depths.
tropical coral reefs
Exceptions to the general rule of low tropical productivity.
__________ regions has the median climate productivity.
Median climate productivity.
In __________ months, polar regions has weeks or months of darkness which severely limits productivity.
Within the __________ months, polar regions have 24-hour daylight & the upwelling of nutrients lead to plankton blooms, but doesn't last because nutrients are rapidly removed.
The __________ is more productive than the Arctic because the Arctic Ocean is surrounded by landmasses that limit water circulation and nutrient upwelling, which causes nutrients to deplete quickly.
Nutrient __________ causes nutrients to deplete quickly (lead to plankton blooms), whereas nutrient _________ causes nutrients to deplete slower.
Southern ocean (Antarctic) enriched by water upwelling that is rich in nutrients which leads to __________ productivity.
__________ regions has the highest climate productivity.
Highest climate productivity.
temperate & subpolar zones
Highest climate productivity due to:
- dependable light
- moderate nutrient supply
**Greatest of any open ocean area
Higher of 2 peaks:
- Indicates plankton bloom in spring caused by increasing illumination.
Smaller of the two peaks:
- Northern fall bloom caused by nutrients moving toward the surface.
Photosynthesis exceeds respiration in the __________ zone, but not always in the __________ zone.
- Open water
- Neretic zone: nearshore or coastal waters**
- Ocean zone: deep water
**Important to Louisiana
- Ocean bottom**
**Neritic zone not part of zone
Distribution of __________ corresponds to distribution of major nutrients.
- Primary production nearly always higher than open ocean because nutrient levels are highest near the continent's coastal upwelling and land runoff
- Plankton most abundant there and production
Zooplankton and other animals eat __________.
largest marine animals
- Whale, sharks, and baleen whales
- Concentrate zooplankton from the water and consume it in vast quantities**
Most marine autotrophs, large or small, are __________.
Large seaweed, reaching 62 meters high.
No algae grow below __________ zone because they depend on __________.
nonvascular structures of seaweeds
- Blades (fronds)
- Gas bladder**
**Helps plant reach up to more light
vascular structure of seaweed
classification of seaweeds
Green algae that lives near the surface.
Brown algae in greater depths of ocean.**
**Accessory pigments (kelps)
Red algae in the greatest depth with dim light.**
**Accessory pigments (biggest group)
Green algae, brown algae, and red algae.
- Part of seaweed zonation
- Down to 10 meters
- Part of seaweed zonation
- Surface to 35 meters
- Part of seaweed zonation
- Surface to 268 meters
Reproduce with flowers and seeds.
Most common seaweed
- Tangled masses of trees
- Grow in water
- Near shore/ estuaries**
Seaweed zone is of __________ importance.
__________ autotrophs make adhesives, stiffen fabric, shaving cream, in ice cream, and replace fat in beef.
Sets with similar terms
OCS FINAL EXAM marine plants
OCS 1005 Final
OCS 1005 LSU FINAL (marine plants)
Ocean Test III: Chapter 12
Other sets by this creator
Sectional Tension in the 1850s
American Revolution & Founding of the U.S.
Classical Civilization Contributions
Structure and Function of Living Things