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100 terms

Organizational Communication

STUDY
PLAY
Metamorphosis
Occurs when the new employee has made the transition from outsider to insider
Anticipatory Socialization
Refers to socialization processes that occur before an individual actually enters an organization
Encounter
Occurs when a new employee enters the organization. The newcomer must adapt to the organization
Overt question
Newcomer solicits information by asking direct questions of information targets
Indirect questions
Newcomers solicits information by asking noninterrogative questions or by hinting
Third parties
Newcomer solicits information by asking a secondary source (e.g., coworker) rather than a primary source (e.g., supervisor)
Testing limits
Newcomer solicits info by breaking or deviating from organizational rules and observing reactions
Disguising conversations
Newcomer solicits info by disguising the info-seeking attempt as a natural part of the convo
Observing
Newcomer solicits info by watching behavior in salient situations
Surveillance
Newcomer solicits info by making sense of past behavior
Illusion of invulnerability
The belief that nothing can go wrong within the group
Illusion of morality
The self-righteous belief that the virtues of the group are above reproach
Stereotyping
The categorizing of others outside of the group in ways that see their views as unacceptable
Self-censorship
The overt restraint of the group members against offering opinions counter to the prevailing thought in the group
Illusion of unanimity
The statement of group agreement while private doubts and disagreement while private doubts and disagreements are suppresses
Direct pressure on dissidents
The coercive force that obliges group members to behave and think in similar ways
Reliance on self-appointed mind guards
The protection of the group from contrary information from outside influences
Structure
Paradoxes involving how organizational democracy is planned, designed, and formalized
Agency
Paradoxes concerning an individual's sense of responsibility, autonomy, and cooperation within the participative system
Identity
Paradoxes concerning issues of inclusion, boundaries, and interests within the participative system
Power
Paradoxes concerning how control and leadership are exercised within the participatory system
Latent conflict
Grounds for conflict exists because parties are interacting in interdependent relationships in which incompatible goals are possible
Percieved conflict
One or more parties perceive that their situation is characterized by incompatibility and interdependence
Felt conflict
Parties begin to personalize perceived conflict by focusing on the conflict issue and planning conflict management strategies
Manifest conflict
Conflict is enacted through communication. Interaction might involve cycles of escalation and de-escalation as various strategies are uses
Conflict aftermath
Conflict episode has both short-term and long-term effects on the individuals, their relationship, and the organization
Inquisitor
Third party exercises control over both the process and the outcome of conflict resolution
Judge
Third party exercises control over the outcome but not the process of conflict or resolution
Mediatior/advisor
Third party counsels parties who maintain control over both the process and the outcome
Motivator
Third party uses threats and incentives to encourage resolution of the conflict
Investigator
Third party ferrets out facts of dispute and presents them to relevant authority
Restructurer
Third party uses authority to redesign the organization in a way that will resolve the conflict
Problem solver
Third party attempts to discover underlying conditions that have led to the conflict
Procedural marshal
Third party describes and enforces rules for conflict resolution
Globalization
Makes the world a global markedplace by connecting the whole world as transportation and telecommunication systems improve.
Outsourcing
Businesses move manufacturing and service centers to countries where labor is cheap
Multinational/international presence
Employees of a single organization are found in many locations worldwide
Machine metaphor
Suggests that we can learn something about organizations by considering a disparate object that an organization "is like"
Fayols theory of classical management
Effective organizations are highly structured, and each individual knows where he or she fits. Clear structures facilitate the functioning of the organziation and clear rules deal with these structures. Prescriptive rather than descriptive
Webers theory of Bureaucracy
Proposed that a bureaucracy is a closed system driven by rational-legal authority. Within the system, there is a strict reliance centralized. Results in a highly impersonal organization where individuality is discouraged. No hatred or passion.
Components of Scientific management
One best way to do every job, importance of a proper fit beteween worker and job / proper selection of worker for the job, importance of training workers(motion studies), inherent difference between management and workers
Hawthorne studies
Mayo and his research team were initially interested in how changes in work enviornment would impact the productivity of factory workers
Maslows Hierarchy of Needs theory
Physiological, safety, affiliation, esteem, self actualization
Theory X
Representative of a manager influenced by the most negative aspects of classical management theories.
Theory Y
Manager who adheres to the precepts of the human relation movement
Components of the leadership grid
Impverished management, Country club management, authority-compliance, team management, middle of the road management
Imverished management
low concner for people and low concern for production
Country club management
high concern for people, low concern for prod
Authority-compliance
high concern for production, low concern for people
Team management
high concern for both people and prod
Middle-of-the-road management
balanced concern for people and production
Informal communication
Less emphasis on titles than formal communication
Likert System I, Exploitive authoriative organization
Characterized by motivation through threats and fear
Likert System II, Benevolent authoritative organization
Characterized by motivation through economic and ego rewards
Likert System III, Consultative organization
Decisions made at the top and control rests primarily at the upper level of the hierarchy. Before decisions are made employees are consulted and their opinions are taking into consideration
Likert System IV, Parcitipative organization
Decions making is performed by every organizational member and goals are set by complete work groups.
Direction of Communication Flow
Interaction that flows horizontally among employees is just as important as downward communication in the accomplishment of organizational goals.
Conflict
The interaction of interdependent people who percieve oppostition of goals, aims, and values, and who see the other party as potentially interfering with the realization of these goals
Affectice conflict
Emotional disagreements focused on personal incompatibility
Spray and Sell
Management showers employees with all kinds of information in the hope that employees will be ablte to sort out significant and insignificant information.
Tell and Sell
Managements selects a limited set of messages regarding core organizational issues. Managmenent "tells" employees about these issues, and then "sells" employees on the wisdom of the chosen approach
Identify and Reply
Management listens to and identifies key concerns of emplyees and then responds to those issues as they are brought up
Withhold and Uphold
Management withholds information as much as possible. When management is confronted with questions or rumors, they uphold the party line
Problem-focused coping
Involves dealing directly with the causes of burnout
Appraisal-focused coping
Involves changing the way one thinks about the stressful situation
Emotion-centered coping
Involves dealing with the negative affective outcomes of burnout
Acculturation
Modes by which two groups adapt to each other and resolve cultural difference
Structural integration
Cultural profiles of organization members, including hiring, job placement, and job status profiles
Informal intergration
Inclusion of minority-culture members in informal networks and acitvites outside of normal working hours
Cultural bias
Prejudice and discrimination
Organizational indentification
Feelings of belonging, loyalty, and commitment to the organization
Intergroup conflict
Friction, tension, and power struggles between cultural groups
Challenges of the diverse organization
Avoiding Negative Impacts of diversity management programs, sexual harrasment,balancing work and home, managing (and celebrating) cultural diversity
Four areas of work distribution
Central office, telework, flextime, the virtual organization
Central office
When work is accomplished by people in the same time and the same place
Telework
When work is accomplished at the same time in a different place
Flextime
When work is done at the same place and different time
The virtual organization
Created thrugh tecnhology that has no brick-and-mortar presence at all. Accomplished at different times and different places through the use of multiple information and computer technologies
Theories of communication media usage
The media richness model,The social information processing model, The dual-capacity model
Domestic organization
An organization that identifies with a single country and predominant culture
Multicultural organization
An organization that identifies predominantly with one country, but recognizes the needs of a culturally diverse workforce and diverse contacts outside the company
Multinationalo organization
An organization that identifies with one nationality while doing business across several or many nations. Management recognizes the needs of a multinational workforce, customer base, and institutional environment
International organization
An organization that identifies with two or more countries with distinct cultural qualities. Distinct national interest are assumed to exist within the companys management, clients, customers, and institutional environment
Gloabal organization
An organization that indentifies with the global system rather than any particular nation. In a global workplace, organizational membership takes precedence over national allegiances
Cybernetic system theory
Deals with the process through which physical, natural, and organizational systems are steered toward reaching system goals. The system goal is target for a particular aspect of system operation
Weick's theory of organizing
This model seeks to illuminate the process of organizing, and draws on a variety of theories in developing his perspective
Network analysis
When the components of systems are people and social groups, the mapping of relationships among people becomes crucially important.
Network roles
Define the ways in which individuals are connected with each other
Organizations primary goal as defined by Weick
Reduction of equivocality in the information environment
Components of Deal and Kennedy's "strong cultures"
Values, Heroes, Rites and rituals, Cultural network
Peter and Waterman's themes
A bias for action, close relations to the customer, autonomy and entrepeneurship, productivity through people, hands-on, value driven, stick to the knitting, simple form, lean staff, simultaneuos loose-tight properties
Cultural performances
Interactional and requires participation of multiple organizational members
Ideology
Structures our thoughts and controls our interpretations of reality
Holism
Systems have this property because of the interdependent nature of their components and the information that flows through the process of feedback and exchange
Equifinality
A system can reach the same final state from differing initial conditions and by a variety of paths
Negative Entropy
The tendency of closed systems to run down
Requisite Variety
A final system property deals with the relationship between a system and its environment
Van Maanens tales
A realistic tale, a confessional tale, an impressionist tale
Frames of reference
Unitary, pluralist, radical
Theory of concertive control
Control, identification, dicipline