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The trait approach is built on the assumption that personality characteristics are relatively stable over time and that

personality characteristics are relatively stable over situations too.

the type approach assumes that every person fits into one personality category and

the behavior of people in one category is different from people in another catgory

Which of the following is true about the trait approach?

No major schools of psychotherapy have evolved from the trait approach.

The trait approach is built on the assumption that personality characteristics are relatively stable over time and that

personality characteristics are realtively stable ove situations too

An advantage of using idiographic approach to personality is that

a person rather than the researcher determines what traits to examine

People with traits that dominate their personality can be described with a

cardinal trait

Murray referred to each environmental force that activates a need as


According to Cattell, ______ traits ultimately constitutes the human personality


People high on the _____ dimension are helpful and sympathetic to others


Which of the following is true about the five-factor model?

Hypothesis about the origin of the five factors were generated after the results of the research were seen

Epstein argued that the reason many researchers fail to produce strong links between personality traits and behavior is that

they don't measure behavior correctly

which of the following is true about gender and achievement?

men and women differ in the way they define success

According to laboratory experiments that examine how type A and Type B people respond to achievement tasks the single best way to motivate type A person is

to set up a situation of competition

which of the following statements is about social anxiety?

all of the above

Which of the following has been demonstrated by research on emotiona effectivity?

negative affect is related to pyschological stress

Which of the following is true about emotional expressiveness?

all of the above

When defensive pessimists are allowed to worry about an upcoming test, they ____ than people not allowed to worry

feel better

The growing acceptance of the biological influences on personality is partly

a reflection of behaviorisms decline in acedemic psychology

using factor analysis, Eysenck found that people who score high on the dimension of psychoticism tend to be

all of the above

Among arguments Eysenck made fot the influence of biology on personality which of the following was not included

The consistency of neuroticism over time

Which of the folowing is not a basic temperment according to Buss and Plomin?


Inhibited children are vulnerable to a specific form of anxiety generated by unfamiliar people, settings or challenges. This form of anxiety is called

anxiety to novelty

According to evolutionary personality social exclusion leads to anxiety because

experiencing anxiety serves an important survival function

Arguments given for the evolution of anxiety incllude all but which of the following?

A need to dominate others

Which of the following is not a tempermental difference found to affect how a child performs in school?

attention to details

Sarah is a grade-school teacher who faces a variety of student capabilities in her class. According to the goodness of fit model, a good teaching strategy for Sarah would be?

To optimize learning by matching assignments and tasks with individual students' temperments

Which of the following pysiological measures do personality researchers use?

all of the above

Twins that we commonly call identical


Which of the following is a problem for the assumption that MZ and DZ twins are raised in eaually similar environments

MZ twins may share more of their environment that DZ twins

research on the genetic heritability of extraversion-introversion has made use of

twin-study method

Why might extraverts not always be happier than introverts?

extraverts are more likely to be impulsive

If you surveyed 100 men about the features in women they consider to be important for selecting a wife, which of the following would be most likely result?

most frequent feature identified is good looks

According to the parental investment analysis, women prefer to mate with dominant men

only if they are willing to provide for the welfare of their children

whereas psychoanalysts emphasize that adult personalities are formed in childhood, humanistic therapists focus on

the here and now

Which of the following is a characteristic of the fully functioning person, according to Rogers?

all of the above

Among the common misconceptions of Maslow's need hierarchy is the assumption

the lower needs must be satisfied totally before we can satisfy higher needs

Self- actualized people tend to

be more spontaneous

If you were shipwrecked and landed on a tropical island, ou would most likely ____first

look for food and fresh water

When Csikszemtmihalyi asked people to identify a moment when they felt most alive and totally engaged in an activity, participants in his study said that

all of the above

According to Rogers the proper therapeutic relationship between therapist and client includes which of the following?

unconditional positive regard

According to the rules of disclosure recprocity people who disclose personal information in get acquainted conversations tend to

match each other's level of intimacy

Men and women are more likely to be accepted when they disclose according to appropriate gender roles in society. For men this means

withholding information for the most part

You best friend has been in a serious automobile accident. According to research on disclosure of traumatic experiences you suggest that your friend

talk about his or her feelings with friends or a trained therapist

Acccording to humanistic psychologists one reason some people are chronically lonely is that they

have low or negative expectations of themselves

People in low self esteem typically react to failure by

not trying as hard

Results of research on time spent alone confirms the hypothesis that

Americans spend a significant amount of time in solitude

Undergraduate students wo base their self-worth on acedemic performance often experience


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