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Reference List: Chinese 3 Grammar

Terms in this set (90)

A "result complement" is a complement that's used to describe or clarify the result of a verb's action.

> VERB + RESULT COMPLEMENT

Remember: a complement is a word or phrase following a verb (or sometimes an adjective) that provides additional meaning to the verb phrase. There are many different types of complements. Complements can describe duration, quantity, state, degree, result, direction, or possibility.

In English, we have separate verbs to describe actions depending on their outcome. You can look, but not see, or listen, but not hear. In Chinese, verbs tend to be of the 'look' and 'listen' variety - the result isn't included like it is in 'see' and 'hear'. So if you want to indicate the result, you have to use a result complement.

There are endless examples of these 'attempt' or 'procedure' verbs in Chinese which don't include an outcome. The majority of Chinese verbs are like this, in fact. For example:

> 看 means 'to look' but doesn't include the result 'to see'.
> 写 is similar to the English verb 'to write', in that it doesn't specify what the result of writing was (e.g. whether it was correct or not).

All of these verbs need a result complement to describe a complete action with its result.

NOTE: The negative form of a result complement is usually formed with "没有" [because it's negating a completed result]. Do NOT use "不."

Examples:
1. 小白菜卖完了。= The baby bok choy is sold out [完=result complement].
2. 你找错钱了。= You gave me the change incorrectly [错=result complement].
3. 功课做好了,我要睡觉了。= My homework is done [好=result complement], I want to go to bed.

For more details about result complements; see this link:
https://resources.allsetlearning.com/chinese/grammar/Result_complement
A "direction complement" is a complement that's used to describe the direction of a verb.

> VERB + DIRECTION COMPLEMENT

Remember: a complement is a word or phrase following a verb (or sometimes an adjective) that provides additional meaning to the verb phrase. There are many different types of complements. Complements can describe duration, quantity, state, degree, result, direction, or possibility.

Direction complements are often combined with the "把" structure, especially when the sentence takes an object.

Simple direction complements include 上,下,近,起,开,来,去,etc.

Compound direction complements are made of two simple direction complements (either 来 or 去 is always in the second part of the compound). Examples include 上去,上来,进去,回来,etc.

A lot of direction complements, particularly compound direction complements, have additional idiomatic meanings beyond literally describing the physical direction of an action. These are the "ABSTRACT DIRECTION COMPLEMENTS." They are often used to express result. Examples include 起来,出来,and 下去.

1. 下来 = implying detachment or separation of one thing from another.
> ex. 孩子生下来 = the child is born

2. 出来 = signifies the emergence of something from a hidden place into the open; or a change from having nothing to having something.
> 把你的问题说出来 = Tell us your problem [to get it out in the open]

3. 起来 = signifying an action that starts to take place; or expressing a preliminary judgement.
> 大家都笑了起来 = everyone began to laugh
> 把地图研究了起来 = started studying a map of China

For more details about direction complements; see this link:
https://resources.allsetlearning.com/chinese/grammar/Direction_complement