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205 terms

CPD Final Questions

STUDY
PLAY
. A 67 year old man had a sudden severe headache, vomited and then lapsed into a coma. He has a past history of hypertension and diabetes mellitus. On examination he is unconscious. On painful stimulation he moves his left upper and lower extremity in a non-purposeful manner.
Cerebral hemorrhage: ( If headache is severe and of sudden onset, think subarachnoid hemorrhage or meningitis)
A 16 year old woman is being treated for recurring episodes of loss of consciousness. On recovering from the episodes of unconsciousness her tongue is usually sore and she has wet herself. On examination she has gingival hyperplasia.
Epilepsy If there is more than one seizure considers epilepsy which is defined as two or more seizures. Generalized epilepsy begins in childhood or adulthood or adolescence; adult seizures are usually partial
A 20 year old army recruit has fever, sore throat, severe headache and macular rash for 2 days. Several recruits in the same regiment were hospitalized with similar symptoms recently.
Meningitis Fever and stiff neck, or nuchal rigidity, are two of the classic signs
of headache from meningitis. Even without other signs such as rash or
papilledema, they strongly suggest an infectious process.
Secondary Headaches are d/t
infection, brain tumor or metastatic growth in brain, hemorrhage
Primary Headaches
Tension headache
->Most commonly occurring headaches
Cluster Headache
Migraine Headache
hemorrhage symptoms
Diplopia or Double vision & headache
In irritative lesions due to epilepsy
or early cerebral hemorrhage, which way do the eyes look
the
eyes "look away" from the affected
hemisphere.
Seizures -
seizures may be the initial manifestation in 15% of patients with a brain tumor, especially with tumors that are superficial and slow growing. Focal and partial complex seizures are more likely than grand mal seizures
Acute symptomatic seizures
Common causes include head trauma;alcohol, cocaine and other drugs; withdrawl from alcohol benzodiazepines and barbiturates metabolic insults from low or glucose or low calcium or sodium; acute stroke and meningitis or encephalitis
Signs of meningeal irritation
Blood (subarachnoid haemorrhage) , infection (meningitis), Tumor
Signs:
- Neck rigidity
- Kernig's sign
- Brudzinski's sign
Neck stiffness
-caused by spasm of the cervical muscles leading to tension headache.
-Neck stiffness may also result from meningeal irritation as in meningitis.
A 38-year-old woman has a 2 day history of frequent urination associated with burning and passing blood in her urine. On examination her vital signs are normal. There is no costovertebral angle tenderness, but she is tender in the suprapubic region.
Cystitis Suprapubic pain associated with frequency of urination may be due to cystitis.
Filtration is non selective
Each kidney receives 1/8 of the cardiac output through its renal artery and filters blood through the glomeruli at the rate of about 125ml/minute in an adult.
Nephrolithiasis :
The symptoms of a kidney stone are sudden onset of flank tenderness along with nausea
and vomiting. The patient experiences more colicky-type pain and moves around a lot, in an attempt to alleviate the pain. There may be fever and chills if the stone obstructs the ureter and causes a
urinary tract infection
Acute Pancreatitis
The pain from acute pancreatitis is generally in the epigastric or left upper quadrant, radiating into the back. Although there is vomiting associated with it, there is no diarrhea. patient will be tender but will not generally have a rigid abdomen
Cholecystitis
acute cholecystitis generally is in the epigastric or right upper quadrant, radiating into the right
scapular region. There is often vomiting but no diarrhea associated with it. On exam, there will
often be a positive Murphy's sign but no rigid abdomen.
urethritis
Urgency in bladder infection or irritation. In men, painful urination without frequency or urgency
A 22-year-old man has a 2 day history of pain in the abdomen that began near his navel and one day later moved to his right lower abdomen. The pain was initially colicky, but became constant during the past 24 hours. Nausea and two episodes of vomiting were associated with the pain. On examination he is lying very still in bed.
His temperature is 100.60F, pulse
112/min blood pressure 118/82mmHg and respirations 16/min
Appendicitis: Symptoms:
Pain (classically central moving after a few hours to RIF)
Anorexia Nausea constipation diarrhea Fever (usually low grade) High rectal tenderness
Common DRE findings
Acute Appendicitis: Differential
Diagnosis for YOUNG Women
Urinary tract infection
Ectopic pregnancy
Pelvic inflammatory Disease.
Ovarian cyst
Acute Appendicitis: Differential
Diagnosis Male/female:
Gastroenteritis.
Inflammatory Bowel disease.
Renal calculus .
Nonspecific abdominal pain
Acute Appendicitis: Differential
Diagnosis Child
Mesentric adenitis Intussusception : inflammation of the lymph nodes in the Gut
Abdominal Pain
"Now I am going to ask you about your
social history."
Transition. Verbal road map that signal the transition from one line of question to another
"Now, I am going to ask about your social history"
"Is there anything else apart from your chest pain and shortness of breath?"
Setting the agenda. " Eliciting the patient's key concerns"
A 35-year-old farmer presents with a 6-month history of progressive shortness of breath on exertion and episodes of paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea. He has a previous history of rheumatic fever in childhood. On examination hepatojugular reflux is increased and there is pitting edema of his legs. Urinalysis is normal.
Congestive heart failure. Aggravated by lying down & Exertion,
In patients with symptom of left ventricular failure (pulmonary edema),, peripheral edema fluid is reabsorbed in the supine position, causing increased blood volume, pulmonary hypertension and pulmonary edema. This process takes hours, unlike orthopnea, which occurs immediately with recumbency. Associated with cough and frothy sputum
A 44-year-old woman presents with swelling of her left hand and arm for 2 weeks. She had a mastectomy followed by radiation therapy for breast cancer 2 months ago. On examination there is non-pitting swelling of her left upper extremities.
Lymphatic edema Lymphedema of the arm and hand may follow axillary node dissection and radiation therapy. Lymphedema is non-pitting and tends to be unilateral and irreversible ( pg 300 LM)
Four days after left hip replacement surgery for a fracture, a 68-year-old woman complains of pain in her left calf. On examination there is left pre-tibial and left ankle pitting edema
Venous insufficiency Edema present and may be sever. Skin changes: brownish discoloration, thickened
ulcerations seen in the in the vicinity of the medial malleolus; Pain, background aching, not usually intense
paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea
patients typically are awaken from sleep with difficulty breathing in the
early hours of the morning. Standing upright brings some relief.
Orthopnea
dyspnea on recumbency due to excess fluid in the lungs in this position. It is caused in part by a shift of blood from systemic and splanchnic blood vessels to the pulmonary circulation as well as a higher diaphragm and lower vital capacity during recumbency.
Exertional dyspnea
caused by failure of the left ventricular output to rise with exercise, resulting in increased pulmonary venous pressure and reduced lung compliance
Lymph node that drains the scalp ?
(superficial cervical nodes
What lymph node drains the feet?
inguinal nodes
Causes of generalized lymphadenopathy include
Leukemia
Lymphoma
Infections (viral, bacterial and protozoa)
Connective tissue diseases
Drugs
What are the characteristics of NORMAL
INFLAMED
MALIGNANT
Lymph nodes
yep
Venous thrombosis.
...
Thrombophlebitis of the communicating veins leads to
with destruction of the valves lead to
venous insufficiency.
venous thrombosis what is it and what leads to it:
Obstruction to flow & Acute Pulmonary Embolism
If edema is present, look for possible causes in the peripheral vascular system.
These include
(1) recent deep venous thrombosis, (2) chronic venous insufficiency due to previous deep venous thrombosis or to incompetence of the venous valves,
(3) lymphedema
Marcus Gunn
Swinging Flashlight Test:

Swing a light back and forth in front of the two pupils and compare the reaction to stimulation in both eyes.
When light reaches a pupil there should be a normal direct and consensual response.
An RAPD is diagnosed by observing paradoxical dilatation when light is directly shone in the affected pupil after being shown in the healthy pup
Adie's (Tonic) Pupil
Common in women in the 3rd/4th decade of life (but also can be present in men)
*Either no or sluggish response to light (both direct and consensual responses)
Thought to be caused from denervation in the postganglionic parasympathetic nerve
Associated with Holmes-Adie syndrome described with Adie's pupil and absent deep tendon reflexes
Argyll Robertson Pupil
This lesion is a hallmark of tertiary neurosyphillis
Pupils will NOT constrict to light but they WILL constrict with accommodation
Pupils are small at baseline and usually both involved (although degree may be asymmetrical)
A 70-year-old woman complains of worsening vision for two years. She says the main problem is with her peripheral vision and that she is able to read the newspaper. She has been on treatment for severe glaucoma for 21 years. On examination her visual
acuity with spectacles is 20/30 in each
eye. There is bilateral and severe concentric constriction of her visual fields.
Optic atrophy The pressure rise is slow and insidious but blindness that should be preventable is common due to this. All persons over the age of 60 years should have their intraocular pressure checked regularly.
Diffuse redness can be seen in conjunctivitis, uveitis and glaucoma
Glaucoma can cause :
severe glaucoma causing trauma to optic nerve=relative afferent pupillary defect (RAPD, Marcus Gunn Pupil)
A 45-year-old man is seen in the emergency room complaining of severe headache and blurred vision for
2 days. He has no significant past medical history. Vital signs are: blood
pressure 260/136 mmHg, respirations 16/min, pulse 64/min regular.
Papilledema= swelling of the optic disk. Findings include blurring of the disc margin, loss of spontaneous venous pulsation, hyperemia hemorrhage and exudates on the disc. The commonest cause is due to raised intracranial pressure. Seen in Hypertensive Retinopathy
How do you diagnosis Glaucoma
By shining the light, When this angle is narrowed by bowing of the iris forward, thus decreasing the space between the cornea and iris, a crescentic shadow is seen on the medial side of the iris.
Optic atrophy: Primary -
The disc is chalky white, sharply demarcated and with normal retinal vessels. The optic nerve degenerates in an orderly fashion. This may be caused by a pituitary tumor, optic nerve tumor, traumatic optic neuropathy and multiple sclerosis.
Optic atrophy: Secondary
- The architecture of the nerve is lost. The disc is grey with poorly defined margins. Drusen and tortuous veins may be observed. Progressive contraction of the visual fields may be observed. Secondary atrophy is secondary to papilledema
Optic atrophy: Consecutive-
Consecutive- The disc is waxy pale with normal disc margin. The arteries are markedly attenuated. This type can be seen in retinitis pigmentosa, myopia and central retinal artery occlusion.
Optic atrophy: Glaucomatous -
There is marked cupping of the disc. There is bayoneting and nasal shifting of the retinal vessels. Splinter hemorrhage may be observed at the disc margin.
Optic atrophy: Temporal pallor -
The disc is pale (more pronounced on the temporal side) with a clear demarcated margin. The vessels are normal. This type is observed in traumatic or nutritional optic atrophy and is most often seen in multiple sclerosis.
An 83-year-old retired carpenter complains of gradually worsening vision for 2 years. His visual acuity is
20/100 in each eye and with binocular vision. Physical examination is otherwise normal
Absent red reflex= cataract; Gradual painless loss of vision (usually bilateral) Slow gradual vision loss is the complaint. ( pg 171 LM)
A 76-year-old man presents with recurring pain and swelling in both knees for 2 weeks. He has been treated for knee osteoarthritis for 6 years. His symptoms improved after fluid was withdrawn from both knees six months ago.
Ballotment With the index and middle fingers of the right hand push the patella gently backwards. If there is excess fluid present, the patella will be initially ballotable
-Continued pushing will result in the patella colliding with the femoral condyles, thus producing a palpable impact (palpable tap).
A 65-year-old woman complains she has had low back pain for 3 years. It has been radiating down the back of her left thigh and leg for the past 3 weeks. On examination the left ankle reflex is 1+.
The bowstring maneuver - Check for sciatic nerve root irritation or entrapment " in a patient experiencing pain at 60 (30 to 70) degrees elevation, from the position of 60 (30 to 70) degrees elevation, lower the leg until the pain is just relieved, then dorsiflex the foot. Recurrence of the above pain on dorsiflexion is confirmatory evidence of sciatic nerve root irritation or entrapment"
A 19-year-old high school athlete visits a sports medicine physician 6 weeks after being hit on his left knee during practice. The left knee swelling and pain that was present 4 weeks ago is now gone. However the left knee becomes sore after running, and occasionally gives way
McMurray: Cartilaginous (medial and lateral menisci) injury
McMurray is for :
Cartilaginous (medial and lateral menisci) injury
Ballotment
Joint effusion The fluid in the knee will now be forced behind the patella. With the index and middle fingers of the right hand push the patella gently backwards. If there is excess fluid present, the patella will be initially ballotable. Continued pushing will result in the patella colliding with the femoral condyles, thus producing a palpable impact (palpable tap).
Sacroiliac joint
The sacroiliac joint stress maneuver - ask the patient to lie supine, as flat as possible, but very close to the near edge of the couch. The examiner must be in a position to prevent the patient from falling if this occurs. Ask the patient to fully flex the knee and hip of the lower limb further away from the edge of the couch, and to hold the knee tightly against the abdominal wall with both hands clasping the flexed knee.
A 34-year-old man is being rehabilitated for an abnormal gait 8 weeks after dislocating his right knee in a motor cycle accident. On
examination, the knee is normal.
However, there is wasting of the right anterior tibial muscles and he is unable to dorsiflex his right foot or extend the right hallux against resistance. Plantar flexion is normal
High-stepping: Neuropathic gait.
Affected foot show no dorsiflexion in swing phase.
Leg (on affected side) has to be lifted higher up to avoid foot scraping the floor.
usually secondary to lower motor neuron disease. Compression or injury of peroneal nerve or peroneal muscle atrophy can cause high steppage gait. Also seen in multiple sclerosis.
A 54-year-old man, currently on treatment for severe hypertension, is receiving physical therapy for a right hemiparesis that occurred 4 weeks ago
Circumventive In spastic hemiplegic gait the stiff legs
swings in half circle (circumduction); often the arm does not swings on paretic side. The spastic gait is either paraplegic or
hemiplegic:
A 51-year-old man complains of numbness and tingling in his feet for the past 3 months. He has a 15 year history of type 2 diabetes mellitus. He has loss of touch, vibration and position sensation in his lower limbs.
...
SPASTICITY VS RIGIDITY
spasticity is an increased resistance to the passive movement of a joint due to abnormally high muscle tone (hypertonus)
-While rigidity is an increased resistance to the passive movement of a joint which is constant throughout the range of joint displacement
spasticity is typically caused by damaged to the corticospinal tract, while rigidity is usually extra-pyramidal in origin
The spastic gait
is either paraplegic or hemiplegic: Spastic Hemiparesis Associated with lesion in corticospinal tract, as with stroke
The spastic paraplegic patient walks with legs held together, moving in stiff manner with the toes dragging. Excessive abduction of thigh can give rise to "scissor gait"
Shuffling or Festinant Gait
Patient may has difficulty initiating the movements of feet or steps.
short (bradykinesia) accelerated steps (Shuffle or festinant) once starts walking.
Choreiform gait
Seen in Huntington's chorea; a hyperkinetic walk with jerks in all extremities.
Waddling Gait aka Myopathic gait.
The pelvis drops as the leg leaves the
ground because pelvis is not supported on the swinging leg side by the weak glutei.
**
Body swings towards the weight
bearing leg to support the body weight and during this lumber spine becomes hyperlordotic.
Causes: pregnancy, muscular
dystrophies, osteomalacia.
Antalgic Gait
A limp seen when patients tries to avoid pain in the weight bearing hip in arthritis or hip pain. The stance phase is short
Quadriceps Gait
Patient hyper-extends the knee of the affected leg and trunk lurches forward on each step.
Peripheral Nervous System Disorders
Gait in conversion disorders/Helicopd gait
Foot makes half circle on walking. Base is not constant in stance phase. Patient lurches wildly in different
directions & falls only when some one is around to catch the patient.
Loss of function due to progressive lower limb weakness. A psychiatric problem; rare; seen in adolescents, non intentional or no malingering.
A 25-year-old woman presents with a 2-day history of severe colicky midline abdominal pain associated with
nausea and vomiting. Three years ago the patient had an appendectomy for acute appendicitis. On examination the abdomen is distended with high pitched frequent bowel sounds.
Small bowel obstruction High-pitched tinkling sounds
suggest intestinal fluid and air
under tension in a dilated bowel.
Rushes of high-pitched sounds
coinciding with an abdominal
cramp indicate intestinal
obstruction.
Sensory Ataxic Gait
Wide base gait where feet strike the ground heavily as strength required is not precise due to lack of coordination & lack of propioception,
Patient looks to ground to get visual cues.
+ive Romberg test: Patient falls with feet together and eyes closed.
Conditions that impair sensory nerves and receptors of
propioception can cause sensory ataxia: Subacute combined degeneration. & diabetes
HIGH PITCHED
Early obstruction produces hyperactive peristalsis proximal to the obstruction
HYPERACTIVE
Irritable Bowel
Diarrhea
Early Partial intestinal Obstruction
Obstruction
A 67-year-old man presents with fatigue and left abdominal fullness for the past 6 months. He had a regular bowel movement every morning until 9 months ago when he became progressively more constipated, despite regular use of laxatives
Left colon obstruction Pain and constipation are early features of colonic obstruction.
Constipation can be defined as bowel movements that are infrequent (three or fewer per week) or hard to pass.
1. Diarrhea can result from pathology in the : ?
2. Small frequent stools tend to point to
3. vvoluminous stool tend to suggest
1. small or large intestine.
2.left colon or rectal etiology
3. small bowel or right colon causes.
Causes of Ascites: transudates vs. Excudates
Transudates
Cardiac failure
Constrictive pericarditis
Budd-Chiari
Meig's Syndrome
Nephrotic syndrome
Excudates
Malignancy (esp. Colon,
ovary, pancreas,
stomach)
Tuberculosis
SPLENOMEGALY
INFECTIONS :bacterial(Typhoid)
Viral (infectious mononucleosis)
Parasitic (hydatid)
Protozoal (malaria)
LYMPHORETICULAR
Hodgkins
Chronic myeloid
A 53-year-old man is admitted to hospital with a 2 day history of severe vomiting and epigastric pain that radiates to his back. The pain is exacerbated by lying down and improved by sitting up and leaning forward. His wife states that he has consumed alcohol heavily for at least 25 years. There is no history of trauma. On examination his mucosae are dry. Pulse is 120/min, blood pressure is 90/64mmHg and his temperature
is 10Q.80f . Abdominal examination reveals subcutaneous bruising in both flanks and tenderness with guarding in the epigastrium.
Ecchymoses around the umbilicus. Acute Pancreatitis Inspection:
distension, Cullen's sign (intraperitoneal bleeding), Grey (retroperitoneal bleeding) - Turner's sign positive.
Grey Turner's sign is bluish discoloration of the flanks.
Acute Pancreatitis:
Associated disorders
Alcoholism
cholelithiasis
idiopathic
Abdominal operations ,
hyperlipidemia , trauma
hypercalcaemia ,
pregnancy, peptic ulcer,
etc.
Symptoms: Pain
(epigastric through to
back) nausea, vomiting
Epigastric pain that is relieved by sitting up and leaning forwards may indicate
acute pancreatitis
Cullen's sign
is bluish discoloration of the umbilicus
A 58-year-old man complains that during the past 3 months he has been becoming increasingly unsteady on his feet. At night he often stumbles and falls. On examination he has a wide-based stomping gait. He is able to stand with his feet together when his eyes are open but he becomes very unsteady with his eyes closed.
Impaired vibration sensation
A stamping gait is seen in patients with injury to the dorsal column. There is loss of position sense. The patient is unable to judge where the ground is and lifts the leg high and brings it down hard on the ground. This is often done with the patient looking at his feet.
A stamping gait is seen in
patients with injury to the dorsal column. There is loss of position sense. The patient is unable to judge where the ground is and lifts the leg high and brings it down hard on the ground. This is often done with the patient looking at his feet.
Fasciculations in calf muscles. is a sign of
Lower motor neuron injury
Dysdiadochokinesia is associated with
Cerebellar disease
The physician who pays attention to what the patient is communicating, who is aware of the patient's emotional state and who uses verbal and nonverbal skills to encourage the patient to describe his/her concerns, is using the communication skill of:
Active listening Closely attend to what the patient is communicating, verbally and non-verbally including being aware of the patient's feelings.
How to localize the APex beat
Placing the patient in the left lateral decubitus position Apex beat - point of
maximum impulse
• Find its general position
with flat of fingers, then
with the tip of one finger.
• Measure the size
Apex beat description:
•Amplitude - usually small and
brisk
• Diameter - normally one
interspace and less than 2.5 cm
• Duration - normal through first 2/3
of systole.
A double impulse
indicates
mix AS and AI,
left ventricular aneurysm
A 39-year-old woman complains of gradual loss of hearing affecting her left ear over the past 3 years. On examination, Whisper test is impaired in the left ear, Weber's test lateralizes to the right and air conduction is twice as long as bone conduction in the left ear.
Sensorineural deafness.
Hyperacusis
perception of sounds as excessively loud and irritating. This occurs on the side of damage. Hyperacusis is due to loss of function of the stapedius muscle which dampens incoming sounds. Hyperacusis accompanying facial nerve derangement places the lesion close to the facial nerve origin in the brain stem.
Presbycusis
Hearing loss associated with
aging,
Conductive deaf
FOREIGN BODY IN AUDITORY CANAL.
OTITIS MEDIA.
PERFORATED EARDRUM.
OTOSCLEROSIS OF OSSICLES.
OTITIS EXTERNA.
A 35-year-old man has a 6 month history of shortness of breath on exertion. For the past 2 months he has had to sleep on 3 pillows to avoid shortness of breath at night. On examination he has a pulse of 104/min, blood pressure 104/78 mmHg and respirations 18/min. The apex beat cannot be localized. On auscultation a murmur is heard near the mitral area. Which of the following will help you to determine whether the murmur is systolic or diastolic?
Palpating the carotid pulse while auscultating the heart.
tympanosclerosis,
Cause of Conductive deafness. calcified plaques may be seen on the surface of the membrane and is usually due to scar formation secondary to incomplete healing of otitis media. These are generally asymptomatic unless protruding into the tympanic cavity, in which case, they may cause conductive deafness.
A 50-year-old man has a 3-year history of failing eyesight. He has had diabetes mellitus for 18 years but has not complied with medications and has never seen an ophthalmologist. His vital signs are BP 110/80 mmHg, pulse 78/min respiratory rate
18/min, temperature 980F. Glycosylated hemoglobin (A1C) is very elevated.
Proliferative retinopathy.= Preretinal vessels arising on the disc and extending across the margins. Can see fibrous proliferations at this stage.
Nonproliferation: Microaneurysms with exudates and white spots
Hypertensive Retinopathy With Macular Star
Punctate exudates are readily visible: some are scattered; others radiate
from the fovea to form a macular star. Find the flame-shaped hemorrhages
Normal Fundus of an Older Person
The blood vessels are straighter and narrower than those in younger people, and the choroidal vessels can be seen easily.
A 22- year- old woman, GO, has a 2-month history that her breasts are tender prior to her menses and that on breast self examination she thinks she feels lumps. On your examination, there is diffuse tenderness and irregular breast tissue in the upper outer quadrants. There is no discrete mass. You re-examine her in two months, after her menses, and the outer quadrant density is decreased. Your clinical diagnosis is:
Fibrocystic Change
Dense, usually bilateral, upper outer breasts= Nodular, ropelike
• Not a discrete mass
• Increased premenstrual
• Resolves or decreases post menses
• PLAN: re-evaluate post menses in 1-2 cycles
• Consider Ultrasound of breast if persistent or
Strong Family History of breast cancer
MASTALGIA
SYMPTOM : BREAST TENDERNESS &PAIN
• Cyclic Changes in Reproductive age females
• Increased tenderness premenstrual
(Increased Estrogen & Progesterone)
• Fibrocystic Change
• Pregnancy
Palpation Order for the breast
Nipple
Areola
Breast
Axilla
Lymph nodes
Fibroadenoma
• Young women ages 15-25
• Mobile
• Firm, rubbery
• Well circumscribed
• May/may not be tender
• Diagnosis:
Ultrasound (also may be seen on mammogram)
FNA (Fine Needle Aspiration)/excise
or observe
The upper outer quadrants of the breast are most common for
for fibrocystic changes and malignancies
Breast Cyst
Ages: 25-50
• Most common breast mass
• Soft, well circumscribed, round, mobile mass,
tiny or large
• May be tender
• One or both breasts
Diagnosis: Aspirate /cytology
Ultrasound: fluid filled structure
Age of breast pathology presentations
Important to know ages
A 23-year-old woman has a 6-month history of palpitations and weight loss of 12
pounds. She has also been feeling restless and anxious. On examination she has
exophthalmos, her palms are sweaty and she has a fine tremor.
Which of the following findings is most compatible with this presentation?
Irregular pulse of 116/min. amplitude is +3
Common symptoms include:
Tachycardia
Widened pulse pressure
Palpitations
Heat intolerance
Sweating
Nervousness
Weight loss
Common symptoms include:
Bradycardia
Cold intolerance
Weight gain
Decreased appetite
Loss or thinning of eyebrows
Constipation
Pale, dry skin
Hypothyroidism
A 28-year- old man presents to the Emergency Department at 2.00 a.m with a one-hour history of pain and swelling in his penis that began after sexual intercourse. He has no significant previous medical history. On examination of his penis, the prepuce is retracted, erythmatous and tender. The prepuse cannot be brought over the glans penis.
Paraphimosis
Retracted prepuce that cannot be returned over the
glans.
Untreated may result in gangrene.
Priapism:
Painful and prolonged erection
Secondary to leukemia, sickle cell disease, drugs.
Phimosis:
Prepuce cannot be retracted over glans
Hypospadias:
Developmental abnormality.
The urethral opening is on the ventral aspect of the penis.
A 53-year-old woman has a 2 year history of worsening pain and stiffness in her joints.
This is worse on awakening in the mornings. Physical examination reveals soft tissue swelling and tenderness in the MCP joints of the hands, wrists, knees and the MTP joints of both feet. There is a mobile, 1cm diameter, non-tender subcutaneous nodule just distal to each olecranon process, on the ulnar surface of the forearm.
Which one of the following additional clinical features is consistent with this presentation?
Ulnar deviation of the MCP joints.
Rheumatoid arthritis: after resting- early morning. Can be classified as inflammatory. Often accompanied with systemic general features such as malaise and fatigue
1 (mono),
2-4 (oligo)
5 or more (poly) joints
Sacroilitis occurs in > 90% of patients with
ankylosing spondylitis(HLA B27-related , typically in young men). Symptoms include low back pain and stiffness, with slowly progressive immobility of the spinal joints
A 50 year old former football player presents with pain and
swelling of his right knee of 6 months duration. The pain started
gradually but is increasing in intensity. Examination reveals a
swollen non tender right knee. There is no increase in warmth
over the joint. What is the most likely differential diagnosis?
A. Ankylosing spondylitis
B. Gonococcal arthritis
C. Psoriatic arthritis
D. Rheumatoid arthritis
E. osteoarthritis
osteoarthritis
A 35 year old female presents with a 5 month history of pain and
swelling in both hands, together with morning stiffness. There is
also the feeling of malaise and fatigue. Examination reveals
swelling and tenderness of the PIP and MCP of both hands.
Which one of the following is the most likely diagnosis
A. ankylosing
spondylitis
B. gonococcal
C. psoriatic
D. rheumatoid
E. osteo
rheumatoid
A 68-year-old woman complains of unsightly veins and discoloration in her legs for the past 2 years. On examination large varicosities are seen on her left leg and a smaller one on her right leg. The Trendelenburg test is done and the results are
positive-negative, on her left leg.
The communicating veins only
Postive -Negative = Rapid filling of the superficial veins while the saphenous vein is occluded indicates incompetent valves in the communicating veins. Blood flows quickly in a retrograde direction from the deep to the saphenous system.

Negative-Positive = Sudden additional filling of superficial veins after release of compression indicates incompetent valves in the saphenous vein.
A 58-year-old man complains that 24 hours ago he coughed up small clots of blood,
twice. He also has a 9 month history of non-productive cough and weight loss of 30
pounds. There is no history of chills or fever. He has a 50 pack year smoking history.
On examination he has partial ptosis on the right and his chest reveals a *dull
percussion note, egophony and whispering pectoriloquy*, in the right upper zone.
Which one of the following additional findings is most likely to be observed in this
patient?
Right pupil is smaller than the left. Horners The affected pupil, though small, reacts briskly to light and near effort. Ptosis of the eyelid is
present, perhaps with loss of sweating on the forehead of the same side.
A 55-year-old man presents with a 3 month history of loss of appetite and weight loss of 15 pounds. Two weeks ago his wife noticed that his eyes were yellow; around the same time his urine darkened in color. On examination he is cachectic and icteric. A soft, non-tender mass, approximately 6 cm in diameter, is felt in the right hypochondrium. Rectal examination reveals clay-colored stool with positive occult blood.
Which of the following findings is most consistent with this presentation?
Skin marks of puritus.
Presentation & Symptoms:
none
weakness
anorexia
loss of weight
abdominal distension
jaundice
itch
Distension
Everted umbilicus
Ascites
Abnormal liver span (small or large)
Hepatic mass
Splenomegaly
A 39-year-old woman has a 1 year history of numbness and 'pins and needles' in her right hand, which are worse at night. She also gives a history of dropping objects, such as money, from her right hand. On examination there is reduced sensation to light
touch and pain over the palmar surface of her right thumb, index and middle fingers.
Which one of the following additional findings in her right upper extremity is/are consistent with this presentation?
A. Contracture of the 4th and 5th fingers.
B. Wasting of the hypothenar muscles.
C. Reduced brachioradialis tendon reflex.
D. Wasting affecting the thenar muscles.
E. Presence of Hoffman's reflex.
Wasting of the thenar muscles.= Recurrent Median
hypothenar muscles. = Radial nerve
A 25-year-old patient who you saw professionally 4 weeks ago stops you in the hospital
corridor and tells you he has developed a severe itch on his genitalia.
Your most appropriate response is?
"Please make an appointment for my next clinic and we will discuss this further."
A 55-year-old man has a 6 month history of swelling of his ankles, and breathlessness with cough that awakens him a few hours after falling asleep. For 21 years he has
been treated for hypertension. On examination, he has laboured breathing. His pulse rate is 110/min, BP 160/110 mmHg, and respirations 30/min. He has elevated JVP, basallu g crackles. tender hepatomegaly, an S3 gallop rhythm, and pitting edema at his ankles.
Pulmonary edema.
The mother of a 2-year- old child complains that the child has been feverish, crying a
lot, and pulling on her right ear for 2 days. There has been no discharge from the ear.
On examination the external auditory meatus appears normal. The tympanic
membrane appears erythematous and bulging laterally. There is tenderness over the
right mastoid process.
Otitis media Movement of the auricle and tragus (the "tug test") is painful in acute otitis externa (inflammation of the
ear canal), but not in otitis media
(inflammation of the middle ear).
Tenderness behind the ear may be
present in otitis media.
A 54-year-old man presents with a 24-hour history of double vision. He has been treated for diabetes mellitus for about 19 years. On examination his vital signs are normal. There is severe ptosis of his left eye. When the patient is asked to look straight ahead, his left eye is deviated downwards and outwards. The right eye is normal.
Which one of the following cranial nerves may be involved?
Oculomotor. innervates the Levator palpebrae superioris
to elevate upper eyelid
Ptosis
Ptosis is a drooping of the upper lid.
Causes include myasthenia gravis,
damage to the oculomotor nerve, and
damage to the sympathetic nerve supply
(Horner's syndrome). A weakened
muscle, relaxed tissues, and the weight
of herniated fat may cause senile ptosis.
Ptosis may also be congenital.
A 50-year-old woman, G1P1, is seen urgently for a mass in her right breast that she found on self examination 2 days ago. Her recent mammogram was negative. Her LMP was 1 week ago. Her mother, sister and a cousin have breast cancer. On examination, there is a 3 em diameter, hard, irregular, non-mobile mass in the upper outer quadrant of the right breast. You proceed to examine the lymph nodes.
Axillary
A 55-year-old man has a 7-month history of intermittent headache that has been worsening recently. He has been treated for diabetes mellitus and hypertension for 2 years. He states that his son, who recently returned home after many years abroad, says that his father's facial appearance has changed greatly. The patient also noticed that his wedding ring became too small about one year ago. On examination he has coarse facial features with a prominent lower jaw. Blood pressure is 150/88mmHg, pulse 80/min, regular, respirations 18/min.

Which of the following additional findi gs is consistent with the most likely diagnosis in this patient?
Frontal bossing.Common symptoms include:
Coarsening of facial features
Enlarged hands and feet
Thickening of the soft tissue
(palms and soles)
Carpal tunnel syndrome
Excessive sweating
A 15-year-old boy complains of a painless swelling in the left scrotum that has varied in size over the past several months. There is no history of trauma. On examination a cystic mass is felt in the left scrotum, the upper extent of which can be clearly defined within the scrotum. The lesion transilluminates well. No inguinal nodes are palpable
and the examination is otherwise normal.

The most likely diagnosis is:
Hydrocele.Accumulation of fluid in the tunica vaginalis. Fingers can get above the swelling
Painless
Fluctuant
Positive transillumination
A 22-year-old college athlete presents with pain and swelling of his right knee for the past two days. On examination he has an antalgic gait that protects the right lower extremity. The right knee is swollen, warm to touch and somewhat tender.

Which one of the following tests/signs will confirm a diagnosis of knee effusion?
Bulge. Effusion (fluid)- Visible swelling, bulge sign, Ballotment
A 34-year-old previously healthy woman presents with pain and swelling in her left leg.
She is taking oral contraceptives. Three days ago she returned home to Grenada from a business trip to London. On examination there is swelling and pitting edema of her left leg. The left calf circumference is 3cm greater than the right.

Which one of the following tests/signs is most likely to be positive?
Homan. Dorsiflexion of the foot with the knee extended
Risk factors for the development of deep vein thrombosis
Immobilization/Bed rest
Surgery - pelvic and long bones
Pregnancy
Obesity
Smoking
Oral contraceptives
Fractures
Hypercoagulability
Malignancies
Economy class syndrome - prolonged maintenance of the
sitting position
Signs and symptoms of deep
vein thrombosis
Pain - usually of a dull ache that may
be relieved by elevation of the leg
• Swelling and tightness of the leg
• Erythema
• Increased warmth of affected limb
A 38-year-old man is seen in the Emergency Department one hour after he was stabbed in his back. He is short of breath, restless and centrally cyanosed. Pulse rate
is 128/min and blood pressure 88/70 mmHg, respiration 25/min. There is a stab wound on the upper right posterior chest. Percussion note is stony dull in the right lower chest. Auscultation reveals decreased breath sounds over the right lower chest.

The abnormal percussion note is most likely due to?
Hemothorax.
PLEURAL EFFUSION
SIGNS TRACHEA,APEX BEAT-DISPLACEDAWAY FROM MASSIVE EFFUSION
EXPANSION- REDUCED
PERCUSSION -STONY DULL
BREATH SOUNDS-REDUCED OR ABSENT
VOCAL RESONANCE-REDUCED
Dullness replaces resonance in the lungs when:
fluid or solid tissue replaces
air-containing lung or occupies
the pleural space beneath your
percussing fingers. Examples
include: lobar pneumonia, in which
the alveoli are filled with fluid and
blood cells; and pleural accumulations
of serous fluid (pleural
effusion), blood (hemothorax),
pus (empyema), fibrous tissue,
or tumor.
A 25-year-old woman presents to the clinic with a history of dysuria and right flank pain for the past 5 days. She also complains of nausea and fever.

On examination which one of the following is most likely to be positive?
C.V.A tenderness Abnormal Kidneys
• Costovertebral tenderness ( CVAT ) : place
hand over area of kidney and strike your hand
with your fist : tenderness is abnormal , due
to infection , calculi
A 65-year-old woman has a 3-week history of numbness and tingling in her right thumb and right upper limb. For the past 3 years she has also had intermittent pain in her
neck and right shoulder, diagnosed as neck osteoarthritis. On examination she has reduced pain, light touch, and vibration sensation over her entire right thumb, and the lateral dermatome of her right forearm and lower aspect of the right arm.

The nerve root involved is most likely:
C6
During her annual health screen, a 25-year-old woman expresses concern about her risk for ovarian cancer because her mother died of the disease.

Which of the following is the most appropriate course of action?
Obtain a more detailed family history of cancer.
A 53-year-old obese woman with type 2 diabetes mellitus is seen during a follow-up visit. She is being treated with a diet and oral hypoglycemic medication (metformin). The physician notes that her weight has increased by 4 pounds since her last visit and that her blood glucose level is above the optimal level.

Which of the following responses by the physician is most appropriate?
" Let us discuss your weight and blood sugar levels to see how we can do better".
51. A 73-year-old man presents with a 4 month history of progressive dyspnea on exertion
and two fainting spells that occurred about 2 weeks ago. On examination his pulse is
11 0/min, blood pressure 102/76 mmHg and respirations 16/min.The cardiac apex beat
has increased amplitude, and is in the sixth left intercostal space 1 em lateral to the
mid-clavicular line. A grade 3/6 crescendo-decrescendo systolic murmur is heard at the
2nd right intercostal space parasternally.
Both sides of the neck.
Location. Right 2nd interspace
Radiation. Often to the neck and
down the left sternal border, even to
the apex
Intensity. Sometimes soft but often
loud, with a thrill
Pitch. Medium; at the apex, it may
be higher
Quality. Often harsh; at the apex it
may be more musical
Aids. Heard best with the patient
sitting and leaning forward
. A 22-year-old man is seen in the outpatient clinic complaining of left ear pain. He has also noticed some hearing loss and discharge from the same ear. On examination of
his left ear there is pain when his tragus is pressed or his lobule is pulled. His ear canal is swollen and there is pus present. The tympanic membrane is intact. Hearing tests
are performed.

Which one of the following is the most likely result of the tests?
C. Whisper: decreased on the left. Weber: lateralized to left. Rinne: BC>AC
Weber Test:
This is useful when hearing loss is asymmetric. Weber tests hearing ability by bone conduction in both ears together. If the sound is lateralized to the side with decreased hearing, the hearing defect is due to a conductive hearing loss. Lateralization to the "normal" ear indicates a sensori-neural hearing loss.
A 52-year-old fisherman complains that there is something growing in his eyes for the past 4 months, and that it is beginning to affect his vision in his left eye. On examination there is a painless pale-yellow triangular raised lesion on the nasal side of both sclerae. On the left the lesion has encroached on the cornea and pupil.
Which is the most iikely diagnosis?
Pterygium. pterygium(may
encroach on the pupil). Both (Pinguecula & Pterygium) are situated on
the nasal bulbar conjunctiva. side. Reddening may occur
intermittently. A pterygium may interfere
with vision as it encroaches upon the pupil.
mitral regurgitation
Location. Apex
Radiation. To the left axilla, less often
to the left sternal border
Intensity. Soft to loud; if loud,
associated with an apical thrill
Pitch. Medium to high
Quality. Blowing
Aids. Unlike tricuspid regurgitation, it
does not become louder in inspiration.
A 23-year-old woman, GO, complains of a "sore" on her vulva that was first noticed by
her boyfriend 3 days ago. She states that whi le on a business trip 2 weeks ago, she
had unprotected sex with a man she met at a club. She has no other complaints. On
examination there is a shallow 'punched out lesion' with a smooth base and rol led edge
on the left labia majora. There are no other lesions.
Which lymph nodes will be first affected?
Inguinal
LOWER Vagina and Vulva ( External Genitalia ) to Inguinal Lymph Nodes
Middle and upper vagina drain into iliac lymph nodes
Nerve Supply: sympathetic -lower thoracic T10-12 some parasympathetic (S2-S4)
Uterus ,ovaries , tubes and drain into
internal iliac and paraortic lymphatics
A 49-year-old man complains of numbness and tingling in his feet, hands and around his mouth for the past 5 days. He has a prior history of alcoholism. On examination he appears undernourished and has pretibial pitting edema. His pulse is 102/min, respirations are 16/min and blood pressure by palpation is 120 mm/Hg. While taking his blood pressure by auscultation the cuff was inadvertently inflated to 170 mm/Hg for several minutes, causing flexor spasm at his wrists and metacarpophalangeal joints.

This spasm is most likely due to:
Hypocalcemia.
Common symptoms include:
Tetanic contractions
Numbness of the extremities
Tingling of the extremities
Laryngeal stridor (Due to smooth
Dysphagia muscle contraction)
Bronchospasm
Dry skin (Chronic changes)
Brittle nails
Chronic pruritis
A 32-year-old man complains of aching in his left testicle for several months. He says that the pain increases during the day, but he is pain free when he arises in the mornings. There is no pain with urination. He notes that he and his wife have been trying unsuccessfully this past year, to have another baby. On examination of the scrotum you palpate a soft mass-like structure that feels like a "bag of worms". Elevation of the scrotum reduces the size of the mass.

What is the most likely diagnosis?
Varicocele. However, varicoceles and hernias may
be apparent only when the patient
stands up.
Multiple tortuous
veins surrounding
the spermatic cord.
"bag of worms"
Reduced fertility
L>R
A 35-year-old secretary complains of pain and tingling in the thumb, index and middle fingers of her right hand for the past 2 months. She is concerned about her job as her symptoms limit her use of the computer. Light touch and pain sensation are reduced on the palmar surface of the symptomatic fingers.

Which one of the following movements at her wrist is most likely to reproduce her symptoms?
Hyperflexion
Tinel sign: percuss over
carpal tunnel
• Phalen test: full flexion
of both wrists
• Please test for evidence of nerve compression in the hand - sensation at
tip of fingers and opposition of the
thumb.
A 35 yr old baseball player complains of pain at the
base of his right thumb. Examination reveals
tenderness at the right carpometacarpal joint (CMJ)and
painful limitation of opposition of the right thumb.
What type of joint is at the site of pathology?
B. saddle
. A 59-year-old farmer presents with a 2 week history of difficulty in walking. He has had numbness and tingling in both feet for 6 months and has a history of diabetes mellitus for 15 years. On examination, he is obese, with blood pressure 148/88mmHg, pulse
76/min, regular, and respirations 18/min. There is decreased sensation to touch,
position and vibration, over both feet. Ankle reflexes are reduced
On the plantar surface of forefoot During inspection of the lower
extremities ALWAYS inspect the soles
of the feet as ulcers due to peripheral
neuropathy often develop there.
. The mother of an 11-month-old girl complains that for the past day her child has had a cough, fever and runny nose. The child is dyspneic, and using accessory muscles of breathing. During her inspirations intercostal recession is seen and a high pitched
noise is heard (stridor). Temperature is 101F, respirations 26/min, pulse 128/min, blood pressure 102/76 mmHg.

Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis?
Laryngotracheobronchitis
Stridor
INSPIRATORY WHEEZING HEARD OVER NECK THAN
CHEST.
MEDICAL EMERGENCY DUE TO OBSTRUCTION IN
LARYNX OR TRACHEA
A 45-year-old body builder presents with a swelling in the left groin for the past 6 weeks. He states that the swelling increases in size when he coughs or sneezes. He can see the swelling when he is standing and it disappears when he lies down. On examination a swelling is felt in the left groin when the patient is asked to cough.

Which type of hernia is this patient likely to have?
A protrusion of peritoneum or
viscera into the inguinal or femoral canal because of an inherent weakness in the abdominal wall.
WHEEZES/RHONCHI
CONTINUOUS
MUSICAL,PROLONG
ED.
WHEEZES-HIGH
PITCHED
RHONCHI-LOW
PITCHED
CRACKLES OR RALES
DISCONTINUOS
INTERMITTENT, N0N-MUSICAL ,BRIEF
FINE
COARSE
A 75-year-old woman is seen, accompanied by her daughter, who says that for the past 3 months, her mother is behaving oddly and that her 'memory is bad'. During the mental status examination you ask the patient "what do people mean when they say
'the squeaky wheel gets the grease?"

Which one of the following mental status features are you testing?
Abstract thinking. similarity between objects and meaning of proverbs: Alternatively, ask the patient for similarities e.g. How are oranges and apples similar? How are children and dwarves similar?
A 63-year-old previously healthy woman visits her family physician with complaints of fatigue and insomnia of 6 months duration. She lives with her husband of 28 years and has 2 adult children who lead independent lives. The gynecologic history reveals that she is 11 years post menopause. When asked about her sexual history she says that the last time that she had sex was about 3 months ago and that she is no longer interested in it.

Which of the following responses by the physician is most appropriate at this stage of the interview?
"Tell me more about your lack of interest in sex."
A 55-year-old man has been waking up at night repeatedly with breathlessness for the past 3 weeks. During these episodes he has been coughing up frothy sputum. He had a myocardial infarction 2 years ago. On examination he is sitting up in bed with a low volume pulse of 122/min, blood pressure 96/84mmHg and respirations 24/min.His extremities are cold and cyanotic.
Which of the following is most consistent with his diagnosis of left ventricular failure?
Lung rales. • Rales (crepitations) on auscultation: basal rales may indicate congestive heart failure; diffuse rales may indicate the onset of pulmonary edema
A 38-year-old woman complains of pain, redness and watering in her left eye for the past 2 days. She is now having difficulty reading. On examination of her left eye there
is a mucoid discharge, the eye is red, the cornea is hazy and an abrasion is seen on the cornea. The pupil is normal.
This is most likely:
Keratitis is a condition in which the eye's cornea, the front part of the eye, becomes inflamed. The condition is often marked by moderate to intense pain and usually involves impaired eyesight
A 28-year-old business-woman, GO, is being seen for her annual gynecologic examination and renewal of oral contraceptives. Her LMP was one week ago. Following a normal speculum examination, the bimanual examination reveals a cystic mass in the midline just above the symphysis pubis. The uterus is difficult to palpate. There are no discrete adnexal masses.

Your most appropriate words to the patient would be
"Did you empty your bladder recently?"
A 65-year-old homeless woman is admitted with mental confusion and a temperature of 95°F. On examination she is obese and disoriented in time and place. There is a surgical scar over the anterior surface of her lower neck and loss of the lateral third of her eyebrows. Vitals are: Blood pressure 100/80mm/Hg, pulse 45/min and respirations
12/min. Which of the following findings is most consistent with the above presentation?
Periorbital edema
Common symptoms include:
Bradycardia
Cold intolerance
Weight gain
Decreased appetite
Loss or thinning of eyebrows
Constipation
Pale, dry skin
Round, puffy face (myxedema)
Hoarse voice
Muscle aches
Abdominal bloating
Hair changes (thins, coarsens)
Depression
Decreased sex drive
Slowed relaxation phase of
deep tendon reflexes
A 35-year-old athlete presents with pain in his right elbow for the past three days.
There is no history of trauma, but he recently began his pre-season workouts. On examination there is tenderness at the lateral epicondyle of the right humerus. Which of the following movements against resistance is most likely to aggravate the pain in the right elbow?
Extension of the wrist.
Lateral epicondylitis ("tennis elbow"): The pain is aggravated by activities that put the wrist in dorsiflexion, thus putting strain on the extensor tendons. These patients experience pain when opening a door or lifting a glass.
Cozen's test - Place the elbow to be tested in 90 degrees of flexion.Have the patient pronate the forearm, make a fist, and radially deviate and extend (dorsiflex) the wrist. The other hand of the examiner applies pressure (resistance)
Medial epicondylitis ("golfer's elbow")
Examination for medial epicondylitis:
Tenderness - palpate over the medial epicondyle
Test - Ask the patient to flex his wrist while the examiner is providing resistance with one hand. Resulting pain is a positive test.
A 56-year-old man has a 2 month history of pain in his left calf that is brought on by walking and relieved by a few minutes of rest. On examination his fingers are nicotine-stained. The left leg is cool to palpation. The dorsalis pedis and posterior tibial
pulses are absent on the left and 1 + on the right.
Which of the following tests is most appropriate in this patient?
Buerger. In a patient with significant peripheral arterial insufficiency, elevation of the lower extremity will result in pallor. The feet will become pale. The angle of elevation at which pallor occurs indicates the degree of insufficiency, the less the angle, the greater the insufficiency. The angle at which pallor begins is termed the Buerger's angle.
A 28-year-old man complains of fever, cough and shortness of breath for the past two days. On examination his temperature is 102°F, pulse rate is 110/min and respirations
30/min. His trachea is central. Chest expansion is reduced in the left lower chest.


Which of the following findings in the lower zone of the left lung best supports the diagnosis of lobar pneumonia?
Whispering pectoriloquy
BRONCHOPNEUMONIA- SIGNS
EXPANSION -REDUCED
TACTILE FREMITUS-INCREASED ON AFFECTED SIDE
PERCUSSION-DULL
BREATH SOUNDS-BRONCHIAL
ADDITIONAL SOUNDS-RALES
VOCAL RESONANCE-INCREASED ON AFFECTED SIDE
PLURAL RUB MAY BE HEARD
AEGOPHONY
WHISPERING PECTORILOQUY
A 20-year-old man presents with a one day history of fever, and pain in the right lower quadrant. The pain started in the periumbilical area. On examination his temperature
is 1000F, his blood pressure is 120/80 mmHg and pulse is 104/min. Examination of the abdomen reveals tenderness, guarding and rebound tenderness in the right lower quadrant and a positive psoas sign.

Where is the affected organ located?
Retrocecal.
The psoas test is positive when the appendix is located in a retroperitoneal retrocecal position
The obturator test is positive with a: ?
pelvic appendices
The mother of a 5-year-old girl complains that her daughter has not been arousable for
1/2 hour and has had a fever for the past 24 hours. The child is being treated for an ear infection for the past three days. On examination the child does not respond to commands but responds to tactile stimulation by moving her limbs and head in a purposeful manner. Her temperature is 102F. Nuchal rigidity and Kernig's sign are present. Tendon reflexes are normal.

Which one of the following is most likely to be also present in this patient?
BRUDZINSKI'S SIGN - Flexing the patient's neck causes flexion of the patient's hips and knees.
While interviewing his patient, a family physician says, "Now let me know if I've got this right. You said you have had heavy periods with lots of clots for about 8 months and that you've been tired and exhausted for the past two months. For the past 2 weeks your usual activities have been making you short of breath. Is that all correct?"

This is an example of:
Summarization.
A 65-year-old man complains of 'fluttering' in his chest and shortness of breath of 2 weeks duration. He also felt faint on two occasions today. On examination, his vital signs are: T 98°F, pulse 128/min, RR 22/min. His pulse is irregular in timing and of variable but symmetrical volume. S1 is of variable intensity. The lungs are clear.

Which one of the following is the most likely additional physical finding?
Heart rate of 172/min.
atrial Fibrilation: Irregular irregularity, Absent a wave
Large a wave
- Pulmonary hypertension
- Rt. heart failure
- Tricuspid stenosis
A 22-year-old woman presents to the eye clinic for her annual check. Her visual acuity is 20/30 in both eyes, on Snellen's chart.
myopia
Difficulty with close work suggests
hyperopia (farsightedness) or
presbyopia (aging vision)
Difficulty with distances, myopia (near-sightedness): In myopia, the light rays focus anterior to the retina;
A 57-year-old woman, GO, has been feeling full after small meals and thinks that she is gaining weight particularly in her abdomen, over the past 2 months. Her LMP was 5 years ago and she has never been on hormone replacement. On examination of the abdomen there is fullness in her flanks and shifting dullness. On pelvic examination, the vagina is atrophic, the uterus is small, atrophic, and there is no palpable adnexal mass. On rectovaginal examination, there is an irregular non-mobile 6 em mass in the right adnexa. The stool is negative for occult blood.

Your most likely clinical diagnosis is cancer of the:
Ovary
Causes of Ascites Malignancy (esp. Colon,
ovary, pancreas, stomach)
A 45-year-old ex-baseball player presents with white patches on his tongue that he first noticed 3 months ago. He has been chewing tobacco for the past 25 years. On examination 3 white slightly raised oval lesions 1-2cm in diameter are seen on the tongue and buccal mucosa. They cannot be removed with the tongue blade. The lesions are most likely:
Leukoplakia. Leukoplakia is a white patch that cannot be scraped off and can be premalignant. Smoking/chewing tobacco is also implicated in the causation of leukoplakia.
A 39-year-old man has a 2-day history of right shoulder pain that began after a game of tennis. On examination, active abduction of his right arm is relatively pain-free to 30, but further abduction/elevation is painful to 120, after which further elevation becomes
less painful. There is tenderness over the shoulder-tip area.

Which is the most likely diagnosis?
Supraspinatus tendonitis= Painful arc syndrome Pain 50-130
Shoulder impingement syndrome, also called painful arc syndrome, supraspinatus syndrome, swimmer's shoulder, and thrower's shoulder, is a clinical syndrome which occurs when the tendons of the rotator cuff muscles become irritated and inflamed as they pass through the subacromial space, the passage beneath the acromion. This can result in pain, weakness and loss of movement at the shoulder.
rotator cuff
(supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor and subscapularis
A 25-year- old woman complains of episodes of pallor, followed by bluish discoloration and redness of her hands for the past 6 months. The episodes usually occur in the winter , and sometimes when she is in air-conditioned rooms. She does not smoke. They do not occur if she is wearing warm undergarments and is not exposed to cold . Her younger sister has experienced similar episodes . General physical examination and examination of the hands reveal no abnormalities..

This is most likely due to
Raynaud's disease
Causes of vasospasm include Raynaud's disease or phenomenon
A 75-year-old man presents with chronic cough and wheezing for the past 10 years. He has been a smoker for the past 50 years. On examination his chest is barrel-shaped and the trachea is central. Palpation reveals no tenderness but the antero-posterior diameter is more than the lateral diameter and expiratory wheezing is heard all over the lung fields.
Hyperresonant
EMPHYSEMA
SIGNS
BARREL SHAPED CHEST
PURSED LIP BREATHING
USE OF ACCESORY RESPIRATORY MUSCLES
PALPATION-REDUCED EXPANSION
PERCUSSION-HYPERINFLATED
BREATH SOUNDS-DECREASED
SIGNS OF HEART FAILURE
A 58-year-old man complains of low back pain that has been shooting down his left posterior thigh and leg for the past 4 days. He has 5-year history of similar pain that was previously treated with analgesics and physical therapy. On examination he has decreased sensation over his lateral foot, weak plantar flexion and inability to walk on his toes, all on the left. The left ankle reflex is absent.

Which is the most likely site of disc herniation producing the above features?
L5-S1. Lasegue's or straight leg raising test - with the patient lying supine, as flat as possible, hold each leg by the ankle alternately and raise each straight leg, one at a time, passively to about 60 (30 to 70) degrees. A patient with sciatic nerve root irritation, such as due to prolapsed intervertebral disc, or nerve root entrapment, will experience sharp pain in the back or buttocks that radiate down the thigh/leg along the L5 or S1 dermatome.
Mr. B.W. age 58 years: "Doctor, I've been having difficulty passing urine for the last 2 weeks."
Doctor: "Have you noticed anything else that's not normal?"
Mr B.W.: "Yes, it's been burning me in the bottom of my belly when I pass it and I've been feverish since yesterday."
Doctor: "Are there any other matters that you would like me to take care of during this visit?"
Mr. B.W.: "No doctor, that is all"
Setting the agenda.
A 55-year-old man has a 2-month history of progressive shortness of breath that worsens if he lies flat at night. He also notices swelling of both legs for the past 2 weeks. He has had hypertension for 15 years. On examination his pulse is 120/min BP
180/130mmHg and respiratory rate of 22/min. His JVP is 5 cm H20. He has bilateral
basal lung crepitations and 3+ pitting edema over both ankles.

Which maneuver/position is most likely to cause a rise in his JVP?
Firm pressure over the liver. Jugular venous Pressure (JVP): This provides information on pressures in the right side of the heart and its inflow. Changes in the right side of the heart also frequently reflect changes in the venous system, blood volume, pulmonary circulation and left side of the heart
hepato-jugular reflux:- apply firm continuous pressure with your fingers, in the abdomen, below the right costal margin in the mid-clavicular line, for more than 15 seconds.
• In normal persons this test increases (by 1-3 cm water) the jugular venous pressure and this increase is not sustained > 10 secs.
If the rise in jugular venous pressure is > 3cm and is sustained more than 10-15 secs, it is abnormal and is suggestive of right ventricular (or congestive cardiac) failure
A 13-year-old girl complains of a painful swelling on her rightupper eyelid for 3 days.
On examination there is a swollen and erythematous area on the margin of the eyelid that points outwards.

The most likely diagnosis is:
Stye (hordeolum) is red, swollen, and tender and has pus discharge
A 18-year-old previously healthy woman has a 2-month history of a lump in her left breast that is not painful. On examination, her blood pressure is 110/72mm Hg, pulse
60/ min, regular, and respirations 16/min. The right breast is non-tender, without a palpable mass. In the left breast there is a firm, non-tender, and very mobile mass of approximately 1.5cm diameter in the upper outer quadrant. The most likely diagnosis is:
A 18-year-old previously healthy woman has a 2-month history of a lump in her left breast that is not painful. On examination, her blood pressure is 110/72mm Hg, pulse
60/ min, regular, and respirations 16/min. The right breast is non-tender, without a palpable mass. In the left breast there is a firm, non-tender, and very mobile mass of approximately 1.5cm diameter in the upper outer quadrant. The most likely diagnosis is:
Fibroadenoma
• Young women ages 15-25
• Mobile
• Firm, rubbery
• Well circumscribed
• May/may not be tender
• Diagnosis:
Ultrasound (also may be seen on mammogram)
FNA (Fine Needle Aspiration)/excise
or observe
An 18-year-old woman complains that she recently noticed a growth inside her mouth.
It is not painful, but she is concerned because her uncle died from cancer of his throat a few years ago. On examination there is an oval swelling, 1.5x2.5 em diameter, and of bony consistency in the midline of the hard palate. The mucosa over the swelling is normal. The remainder of the examination, including palpation for cervical lymphadenopathy, is negative.
'This is harmless and needs no treatment".Torus palatinus is a benign midline bony swelling of the hard palate. Most palatal tori are less than 2 cm in diameter, but their size can change throughout life.
A 36-year-old man presents with pain and tenderness in his right wrist after a fall on his outstretched hand 2 days ago. On examination there is tenderness on the lateral side
of the wrist, just proximal to the base of the first metacarpal.

Which is the most likely diagnosis?
Fracture of the scaphoid Tenderness over the "snuffbox" suggests a scaphoid fracture.
A 35-year-old Guyanese woman complains of progressive swelling of her legs for the past 2 years. Three years ago she was treated for several episodes of fever accompanied by painful swellings in both groins. Examination reveals painless bilateral inguinal and femoral adenopathy, each node being 1-2cm in diameter and of firm consistency. There is non-pitting, non-tender edema of both feet, legs and thighs.
Which of the following is the most likely cause of this edema?
Chronic lymphedema
Secondary lymphedema
• Radiation therapy
• Surgery
• Parasitic infection (e.g. Filariasis)
• Surgical lymph node removal (radical
mastectomy)
• Malignant tumor invasion (metastases)
Lymph Nodes of the Breast lateral breast
Majority of lymph drains into ipsilateral (same side)
axillary nodes along a chain which starts at
ANTERIOR AXILLARY (PECTORAL) nodes and continues into CENTRAL nodes and then APICAL (Subclavian / Infraclavicular )Nodes, and later Supraclavicular Further drainage is into Subscapular (posterior axillary) and Interpectoral nodes
MEDIAL BREAST
drains into Internal Thoracic and Mediastinal (Internal Mammary) nodes
A 66-year-old man complains of severe cough and chest pain for the past 2 days. He looks ill and his temperature is 102F. On examination the trachea is central and tactile fremitus is increased. There is dullness to percussion at the right base, with bronchial
breath sounds and egophony in the same area.

Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis
Lobar pneumonia
BRONCHOPNEUMONIA
SIGNS
EXPANSION -REDUCED
TACTILE FREMITUS-INCREASED ON AFFECTED
SIDE
PERCUSSION-DULL
BREATH SOUNDS-BRONCHIAL
ADDITIONAL SOUNDS-RALES
VOCAL RESONANCE-INCREASED ON AFFECTED
SIDE
PEURAL RUB MAY BE HEARD
AEGOPHONY
WHISPERING PECTORILOQUY
A 15-year-old girl is seen accompanied by her mother, who states that she wants her daughter to be on a contraceptive because she has become sexually active. During an interview with the patient alone, she reports that she has become sexually active with her boyfriend during the past 3 months; they use condoms consistently, and she is not interested in any other form of contraception at this time. Menarche was at the age of
12 years, and menses occur at regular 28-day intervals. She has had no symptoms of
sexually transmitted diseases. Examination shows no abnormalities.

In addition to counseling the patient about all contraceptive methods, which of the following is the most appropriate next step?
. Do not inform the mother that her daughter and her partner use condoms, but encourage the daughter to do so.
A previously healthy 66-year-old man has a 5 month history of increasing clumsiness in dressing himself and doing daily tasks. On examination his movements are slow, his face is expressionless and there is tremor of his fingers. Muscle tone is increased in
the upper and lower limbs.

Which of the following types of gait is most consistent with the above presentation?
Festinant. Patient may has difficulty initiating the movements of feet or steps.
short (bradykinesia) accelerated steps (Shuffle or festinant) once starts walking.
A 44-year-old man presents with a 6-month history of palpitations and easy fatigability.
His pulse is 104/min and respiratory rate 28/min. Auscultation reveals an early diastolic decrescendo murmur at Erb's point with the patient sitting up and leaning forward.

Which of the following is likely to be present in this patient
D. Collapsing pulse. aka Corragans, water-hammer pulse: Greater amplitude; rapid rise normal plateau sudden decent
Location. 2nd to 4th left interspaces
Radiation. If loud, to the apex,
perhaps to the right sternal border
Intensity. Grade 1 to 3
Pitch. High. Use the diaphragm.
Quality. Blowing; may be mistaken
for breath sounds
Aids. The murmur is heard best with
the patient sitting, leaning forward,
with breath held in exhalation
Early diastolic backflow across semilunar
Middiastolic murmur
obstruction to flow across semilunar
• Sit up, lean forward, (hold
breath in expiration),listen
at base : Increase what murmur
increase
intensity of aortic
incompetence murmurs
Left lateral decubitus
(apex closer to the chest
wall), listen at apex -
increase intensity of murmur of mitral stenosis, better appreciation of S3,
S4 Gallop rhythms.
Valsalva maneuver (and standing) -
decrease cardiac output effects what murmur
***
Compared to Release phase of valsalva maneuver (squatting) -
Standing = Murmur of stenosis softer.
Release= increase cardiac output. Murmur of stenosis louder
A 12-year-old boy presents with fever, pain and swelling of both sides of his jaw and inability to open his mouth fully for the past 3 days. On examination, swelling and tenderness are present on both sides of his face anterior to the tragus, above the angles of the jaw.
Which one of the following is the most likely diagnosis?
Viral parotitis. Swellings of the parotid gland are palpated at the angle of the mandible and usually lifts the pinna outwards. Viral parotitis usually occurs in children. Mumps virus can also affect the pancreas and testis in males.
A patient comes to the clinic for her regular visit. You are seeing her for the first time because her regular doctor is ill. During the interview she is very talkative.

Which one of the following will help to improve the effectiveness of the interview?
Summarize the first few minutes of history and ask her to focus on one aspect.
. A 30-year-old woman presents with a three-month history of anxiety, restlessness, shaking of the hands and weight loss.Examination reveals: vital signs- BP
120/80mmHg, pulse 110/min and respiration of 18/min. Her skin is warm and moist.
There is a fine tremor of the outstretched hands. In the neck, there is a diffuse swelling that moves up on swallowing.

Which one of the following additional features will indicate that the neck mass is producing a hyper-metabolic state?
Bruit over the mass
A 55-year-old man has a 6-month history of increasing weakness in his legs. For the past 3 months he has also had difficulty in buttoning his shirt, and his writing has deteriorated. On examination of his lower extremities there is grade 3/5 power, increased tone, hyperreflexia and Babinski reflexes. In the upper extremities, wasting and fasciculations are present in his forearm and hand muscles, tone is reduced and muscle power is grade 4/5. He is diagnosed with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

In this patient which of the above physical signs is most specific for a lower motor neuron lesion?
Fasciculations- indicative of a lower motor neuron lesion such as a peripheral nerve lesion.
BELL's palsy Drooping of outer corner of mouth and eyes result in saliva and tears running from mouth and eyes, corneal dehydration can result Loss of tone in the orbicularis oculi leading to eversion of lower eyelid Paralysis of the buccinators and orbicularis oculi results in food accumulating in the oral vestibule during chewing requiring
The most common infranuclear pathology. A lesion of the facial motor nucleus or facial nerve (lower motor neuron), will affect the muscles of both upper and lower face on the ipsilateral side.
A 45-year-old woman has a 10-day history of a vaginal discharge that is becoming copious. Six days ago she developed pain during urination. A medical student is asked to take a sexual and gynecological history.
"I would like to ask you some questions that I ask all of my patients."
A 28-year-old woman, G2P2, is seen in the Emergency Department for pelvic pain that is not related to her menstrual cycle. Her LMP was two weeks ago, and she uses oral contraceptives. During the interview she appears very anxious. On examination, you note ecchymoses on her breasts and lower abdomen, some of which appear to be recent and a few appear to be almost resolved. Her abdominal and pelvic exams are otherwise normal.

Once she is dressed, what is your most appropriate communication with her?
"Are there times that you feel unsafe at home?"
A 40-year-old male presents with a 4-month history of intermittent swelling and pain in the area of the right lower jaw on eating.
Inspection of the floor of the mouth reveals a swelling just distal to a small punctum located on the right side of ttie frenulum of the tongue. Palpation of this area reveals a small structure 0.5cm in diameter. Posterior to this mass and just posterior to the right lower incisor on the floor of the mouth and deep to the mandible, is a tender oval swelling of diameter 3cmx1.5cm.

The most likely differential diagnosis of the anterior swelling is
Calculus in Wharton's duct: The submandibular duct (Wharton's) is about 5 cm long and originates from the deep portion of the gland, runs forward parallel to the tongue on the floor of the mouth, to open on the sublingual papilla on either side of the frenulum:
. A 58-year-old man has a 6-month history of "pins and needles" in his feet. He is a painter who lives alone and for the past 18 years has regularly consumed about one quart of rum on weekends, often with his friends. He says that he has not spoken with any of his 5 children for about 10 years because they were critical of his drinking.

Which of the following statements/questions would be most helpful in deciding whether the patient has alcoholism?
Have you ever had an early morning drink to steady your nerves?
A 35-year-old man with a diagnosis of multiple sclerosis complains of frequent falling during the past 2 months. During the past month he also noticed shaking of his hands that is worse when he uses them. On examination his gait is very unsteady. The
finger-nose and heel-knee-shin tests are abnormal. Dysdiadochokinesia is present.

Which one of the following findings is most compatible with this presentation?
Horizontal nystagmus. Inability to maintain gaze fixation. There are involuntary uncoordinated rapid oscillations of the eyes when attempting to look at an object. A slow phase is followed by rapid saccadic correction. In cerebellar disease, the fast component is maximal toward the side of the lesion. It is most commonly gazed evoked but can also occur in a primary position. The direction of nystagmus may be horizontal, vertical or rotary.
Pronator drift with a tremor
The tremor of Parkinson disease, extrapyramidal disease, is a resting tremor and is usually asymmetric. In essential tremor, the tremor is worst on sustained posture as in testing for pronator drift (see muscle strength).