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Stages of Second Language Development
Preproduction...Early Production...Speech Emergent...Intermediate Fluency...Advanced Fluency
1 to 3 months...non verbal responses...activiely listens...responds to commands...reluctant to speak...TEACHERS: use gestures, realia, pictures...do not force students to speak
1-2 word answers....mostly present tense verbs....TEACHERS: ask short answer questions...yes/no...either/or
Several months to 1 year...participates in small group activities...short phrases...some L1...grammar errors...TEACHERS: ask open ended questions...performance based assessments
3-5 years...struggles with abstract, cognitively demanding subjects, especially with literacy...few grammatical errors...TEACHERS: provide comprehensible & interactive activities...teach thinking & study skills
5-7 yearss...developed content area vocabulary...participates in grade level activities with minimal support...TEACHERS: continue to support students as necessary
Krashen's Natural Approach
focus on natural communication...speech will emerge...goal is the learn BICS for everyday situations
Basic Interpersonal Communcation Skills...social & conversational language...2-3 years to understand social language..."recess talk"
think of a car window...down: info passes through and students learn...up: high level of anxiety, blocks info from reaching learner
Cummin's Iceberg Model
surface features to two languages (top of two separated icebergs)...concepts are transferable from L1 to L2...CUP
Student Support Schema
4 quadrants of cognitive and lingusitc demands...TEACHERS: have cognitively demanding tasks that are context embedded
Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency...proficiency in the context reduced academic language...7 or more years to become proficient
learning L2 to achieve goals...for a career...corporation sends Japanese businessman to US for language training
learning L2 to intergrate with culture...for immigration or marriage...Japanese-American parents send kids to Japanese language school
aka stablization...plateaus with L2...so accustomed to an error that he does not hear the correct use even though he is relatively fluent
born with capacity for language (aka universal grammar)...part of brain call the LAD (Language Aquistion Device)
L2 is learned by memorizing rules and patterns...isolated from meaningful context
associate with Greek & Latin...focused on grammatical rules, syntactic structures, rote memorization...time spent talking ABOUT language, but no time talking IN the language
learn best by listening in large quantities...connecting words and prases to actions and objects...L1 translation not allowed
memorization & recall of patterns...patterned drills & dialouge to develop grammatical structures & vocabulary in a sequence
The Communicative Approach
student centered...communication based...not in a sequence...must provide context for authentic communication
meaning from experiences...born with ability to acquire language comprehension...enviromental interactions
The Silent Way
teacher is silent...students describe what they observe in L2...L1 not used...students develop their own critieria for language acquisition
The Natural Way
aka Krashen's Natural Approach...language develops naturally in stages...comprehension preceeds production...communicative goals guide instruction...interactive activities lower affective filter
fear of language learning stops rapid acquisition...create a relaxing environement to enhance acquisition...students see text in L1 then L2...use conversation, retelling, role playing...downfall was budget cuts
Community Language Learning
students choose what they want to learn...collaborate with each other...teacher is conselor...L1 is encouraged...similar to Natural Approach
traditional order is reversed...writing taught first...students develop quicker because it is a private activity so the affective filter is low
learner centered...learning functions (memory & cognition)...explicit teaching of learning stategies in communivative ways
Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach...scaffolding, critical thinking & learning strategies guide learning...gradual release of responsibilities
Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol...rubric to make content material comprehensible...preperation, building background, comprehensible input, learning strategies, interation, practice & application, lesson delivery, review & assessment
Zone of Proximal Development
span between with help & without help...Vygotsky's theory...instructional level is just beyond independent ability, but not unattainable (i + 1)
part of day in L1 other part in L2...students are able to keep up with grade level work while learning English
Dual Immersion Education
native & non-native work together...all students learning through two languages being translated back to back...students assume leadership roles, grade level instruction in both languages...strive for bilingualism & biliteracy
Transitional Bilingual Education
first aquire fluency in L1...goal is to transition into English only classroom asap...3 years of lessons in L1 while learning L2...many skills transfer to the L2 later
ESL Pull Out
most expensive, least effective...common in elementary schools...students pulled out for a portion of the day to recieve instruction in ESL
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