Unit 4/5- Chapter 6: The American Rev.Etc

People and Terms
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Terms in this set (...)

Philosophe
The group of social critics in Enlightenment France
Voltaire
French writer who proposed the ideas of separation of powers and checks and balances in government.
Brilliant French satirist who frequently targeted the clergy, the aristocracy, and the government
Baron de Montesquieu
French philosophe who promoted freedom of speech.
An influential French writer who wrote that "Power should be a check to power"
Rousseau
A third great philosophe who was passionately committed to individual freedom. The son of a poor Swiss watchmaker, he won recognition as a writer of essays
Mary Wollstonecraft
early proponent of women's rights.
A woman who published an essay called A Vindication of the Rights of Woman in 1792. In the essay, she disagreed with Rousseau that women's education should be secondary to men's. Rather, she argued that women, like men, need education to become virtuous and useful
Salon
Social gatherings where wealthy hostesses of Paris helped spread the ideas of the Enlightenment to educated Europeans
The buzz of Enlightenment ideas was most intense in the mansions of several wealthy women of Paris. There, in their large drawing rooms, these hostesses held regular social gatherings
Baroque
European art of the 1600s and early 1700s which was characterized by a grand, ornate design. Baroque styles could be seen in elaborate palaces such as Versailles and in numerous paintings
Neoclassical
Under the influence of the Enlightenment, the grand, ornate style in European art known as baroque gave way to a simple, elegant style that was based on classical Greek and Roman ideas.
Artists and architects worked in a simple and elegant style that borrowed ideas and themes from classical Greece and Rome. The artistic style of the late 1700s
Enlightened despot
Some monarchs embraced the new ideas and made reforms that reflected the Enlightenment spirit and "despot" means "absolute ruler"
Catherine the Great
Russian empress who was considered an enlightened despot
Declaration of Independence
The document in which American colonists asserted their independence from Great Britain
A document written by Thomas Jefferson that was firmly based on the ideas of John Locke and the Enlightenment. It reflected these ideas in its eloquent argument for natural rights.
Thomas Jefferson
The political leader that was the main role in writing the Declaration of Independence
Checks and balances
The three branches of the government would check on each other. Each separate branch would always be checking on the other two to make sure things were going smoothly
Federal system
A form of government in which power is divided between national and state governments.
Power was divided between national and state governments
Bill of Rights
The first ten amendments to the U.S. Constitution
Congress formally added to the Constitution the ten amendments. These amendments protected such basic rights as freedom of speech, press, assembly, and religion.
Direct democracy
French philosophe Jean Jacques Rousseau believed this was the best form of government
Women's contributions to the Enlightenment included all of the following except...
a. urging women to enter male-dominated fields
b. writing about the inequalities between men and women
c. running for office
d. holding social gatherings called salons for influential people
C
T or F:
The 1651 trade law called the Navigation Act prevented American colonists from selling their goods to Britain
T
T or F:
The French and Indian War was fought between France and the native population in North America
F, Britain
T or F:
The British eventually were the victors in the French and Indian War
T
T or F:
The Stamp Act was passed by Parliament in 1765 in order to force the American colonists to help pay for the French and Indian War
T
T or F:
The Boston Tea Party was the name given to a convention of colonists who were planning official protests against Britain
F, not a convention
T or F:
The American Revolution began in a skirmish between British redcoats and American colonists on the green in Lexington, Massachusetts
T
T or F:
Paul Revere was the author of the Declaration of Independence
F, Thomas Jefferson
T or F:
The Declaration of Independence was based on the ideas of John Locke and the Enlightenment
T
T or F:
The French entered the war on the side of the British in 1778
F, American
T or F:
The first ten amendments to the U.S. Constitution are known as the Bill of Rights
T
Tycho Brahe
Provided evidence through an astronomical observatory that supported Copernicus's theory
Nicolaus Copernicus
(1473-1543) Polish scholar who challenged the Ptolemaic concept of and earth-centered universe. He demonstrated mathematically that it was the sun that was at the center of the universe. "Father of Astronomy"
Johannes Kepler
Brahe's German assistant who used Brahe's data to confirm Copernicus's theory of a heliocentric universe
Francis Bacon
(1564-1642) rejected Aristotle's scientific assumptions, wanted science to lead to practical technologies that would benefit the lives of people, emphasized experimentation and observation
Rene Descartes
(1596-1650) also rejected Aristotle's scientific assumptions, emphasized the use of reason as the best way to understand science, he was moved to the Dutch Republic when his books were banned in France
Thomas Hobbes
(1588-1679) ARGUES IN FAVOR OF ABSOLUTE MONARCH
believed that humans are selfish by nature and must be controlled, believed a king or queen should rule
The 5 Core Concepts
Reason, nature, happiness, progress, and liberty
Who said "I do not agree with a word you say but will defend to the death your right to say it."?
Voltaire
Who wrote "On the Sprit of Laws"?
Montesquieu
Who said "man is born free, and everywhere he is in chains."?
Jean Jacques Rosseau
What were the three main points of the legacy of the enlightenment?
belief in progress, a more secular outlook, and importance of the individual
Ceaser Bonesana Beccaria
promoted criminal justice, believed laws exist to keep social order, not as vengeance for crimes, and believed the government should seek the greatest good for the greatest number of people
Mary Astell
likened a women's role in marriage to that of a subject of an absolute monarch
Diderot's Encycolpedia
Philosophe Denis Diderot made an Encyclopedia that spread Enlightenment ideas across Europe in 1751
Frederick the Great
king of Prussia who reforms education and justice system, grants religious freedom, abolishes torture, fails to end serfdom
Joseph II
king of Austria who abolishes serfdom and allows freedoms of worship and the press
What year was the battle of Trenton?
1776
The Battle of Trenton took place after what holiday?
Christmas
Who commanded the American troops at the Battle of Trenton?
George Washington
Who commanded the British troops at the Battle of Trenton?
Johann Rall
The British were forced to evacuate their primary base in what city?
Boston
In 1774 the Parliament enacted which act that allowed British troops to occupy housing from anyone?
Coercive Acts
What were German mercenary troops called?
Hessians
Washington and his men crossed which ice filled river to engage in the battle?
Delaware
In what year was the battle of Saratoga?
1777
Which city served as the site of the 1st Continental Congress?
Philadelphia
What city served as the capital of New York?
Albany
How was Jane McRae killed?
scalped
According to the reading on the Battle of Saratoga, who was the heart and soul of the rebel effort?
Benedict Arnold
In 1781, what American general attempted to hand over West Point to British General Clinton?
Benedict Arnold
Who was the American representative in France during the Revolution?
Ben Franklin
What year was the Battle of Yorktown?
1781
Where was the Battle of Yorktown fought?
Virginia
Who was the commander of the French forces aiding Washington in New York?
Comte de Rochambeau
Who was the French commander waiting to link up with Washington in the southern colonies?
Marquis de Lafayette
Which document ended the American Revolution in the Spring of 1783?
The Treaty of Paris
After the Revolution was over the British maintained a colonial presence in which northern country?
Canada
What were the Spanish given for their assistance during the Revolution?
Florida
Who was the king of France during the Revolution?
Louis XVI
True
True/False... the 1651 trade law called the Navigation Act prevented American colonists from selling their goods to Britain.
False
True/False... the French and Indian War was fought between France and the native population in North America
True
True/False... the British eventually were the victors in the French and Indian War
True
True/False... The Stamp Act was passed by Parliament in 1765 in order to force the American colonists to help pay for the French and Indian War.
False
True/False... the Boston Tea Party was the name given to a convention of colonists who were planning official protests against Britain
True
True/False... The American Revolution began in a skirmish between British redcoats and American colonists on the green in Lexington, Massachusetts
False
True/False... Paul Reyere was the author of the Declaration of Independence
True
True/False... the Declaration of Independence was based on the ideas of John Locke and the Enlightenment
False
True/False... The French entered the war on the side of the British in 1778
True
True/False... the first ten amendments to the U.S. Constitution are known as the Bill of Rights
Diderot's Encyclopedia
She helped finance the project of a leading philosopher named Denis Diderot. She created a large set of books
Neoclassical Style
Art of the 1600s-1700s. Baroque- grand, ornate design
Changes in Music in the Enlightenment
Classical type music emerges. Franz Joseph Hayden, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Ludwig van Beethoven
Changes in Literature during Enlightenment
Beginning of Novels. First true English novel, Samuel Richardson's, "Pamela"
Enlightened Despots
absolute rules. The philosophers began to try to convince monarchs to rule justly
Frederick II
or Frederick the Great. King of Prussia from 1740-1786. Granted many religious freedoms, reduced censorship and improved education
Catherine the Great
or Catherine II ruled from 1762-1796. Ruled with absolute authority