32 terms

Living in the Environment: Miller: 18th Edition: Chapter 6 Vocabulary

Miller LITE 17th ed chapter 6 vobulary on human population and its impact
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demography
the statistical study of human populations and sub-populations.
demographers
experts who make predictions and projections about human populations.
Thomas Malthus
an economist who became widely known for his theories about population and its increase or decrease in response to various factors.
cultural carrying capacity
the maximum number of people who could live in reasonable freedom and comfort indefinitely, without decreasing the ability of the earth to sustain future generations.
crude death rate
the number of deaths per 1,000 people in a population in a given year.
crude birth rate
the number of live births per 1,000 people in a population in a given year.
population change
found when the number of people leaving an area through death or emigration is subtracted from those entering a population through birth or immigration during a specified period of time.
fertility rate
a measurement of the number of children born to a woman during her lifetime.
replacement-level fertility rate
the average number of children that couples in a population must bear to replace themselves. It is slightly higher than 2 per couple (2.1 in MDC and 2.5 in LDC)
total fertility rate (TFR)
the average number of children born to women in a population during their reproductive years.
baby boom
a period of high birth rates in the U.S. between 1946 and 1964. The TFR was 3.7 children per woman.
life expectancy
the average number of years a newborn infant can be expected to live.
U.S. Census Bureau
the U.S. government agency that is responsible for the United States Census. It also gathers other national demographic and economic data.
malnutrition
poor nutrition
faulty or inadequate diet
undernutrition
insufficient food.
infant mortality rate
the number of babies out of every 1,000 born who die before their 1st birthday.
child mortality rates
the annual number of deaths among children under age 5 per 1,000 live births.
migration
the movement of people into and out of a specific geographic area.
immigration
the movement of people into a specific geographic area.
emigration
the movement of people out of a specific geographic area.
age structure
the numbers or percentages of males and females in young, middle, and older age groups in a population.
environmental refugees
people who have to leave their homes because of water or food shortages, drought, flooding, or other environmental crises.
reproductive age category
ages 15 - 44 consisting of individuals normally able to have children.
prereproductive age category
ages 0 - 14 consisting of individuals too young to have children.
postreproductive age category
ages 45 and older consisting of individuals normally too old to have children.
preindustrial phase
the 1st phase of the demographic transition where a population grows slowly due to high birth and death rates.
demographic transition
as countries become industrialized and economically developed, first their death rates decline and then their birth rates decline.
transitional phase
the 2nd phase of the demographic transition where a population grows rapidly because birth rate is high and death rates drop.
industrial phase
the 3rd phase of the demographic transition where a population slows as both birth and death rates drop due to improved food production, health, and education.
postindustrial phase
the last phase of the demographic transition where a population levels off and then declines as birth rates equal and then fall below death rates.
failing states
countries where the national governments can no longer ensure the personal security of most of their people, mostly because they have lost control over all or most of their country's territory. (basic needs not met...usually leads to civil war)
family planning
provides educational and clinical services that help couples choose how many children to have and when to have them.

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