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Chem 121-02 Exam 4 Ch 11 (Theories of Covalent Bonding)
Terms in this set (26)
A covalent bond forms when the orbitals of two atoms ___ and a pair of electrons occupy the ___ region.
The space formed by the overlapping orbitals can accommodate a maximum of ___ electrons and these electrons must have ___ spins.
The greater the overlap, the ___ the bond
Atomic orbitals mix, or hybridize, when bonding to form hybrid orbitals. The spatial orientation of these hybrid orbitals correspond with ___ ___ ___.
observed molecular shapes
The number of hybrid orbitals formed equals the number of ___ ___ ___.
atomic orbitals mixed
The type of hybrid orbitals formed varies with the types of ___ ___ ___.
atomic orbitals mixed
The ___ and ___ of a hybrid orbital maximizes overlap with the other atom in the bond.
Atomic orbitals mixed: one s, one p (name, name hybrid formed, unhybridized left)
linear, two sp, two p
Atomic Orbitals Mixed: one s, two p (name, name hybrid formed, unhybridized left)
trigonal planar, three sp², one p
Atomic orbital mixed: one s, three p (name, name hybrid formed, unhybridized left)
tetrahedral, four sp³, none
Atomic orbitals mixed: one s, three p, one d (name, name hybrid formed, unhybridized left)
trigonal bypyramidal, five sp³d, four d
Atomic orbitals mixed: one s, three p, two d (name, name hybrid formed, unhybridized left)
octahedral, six sp³d², three d
Hybridization is not always consistent with observed molecular shapes. This is particularly true for the bonding of ___ atoms.
D orbitals do not hybridize effectively with s and p orbitals, which are much ___ in energy and ___ stable.
A sigma(δ) bond is formed by...
end to end overlap of orbitals
A pi (π) bond is formed by...
sideways overlap of orbitals
All single bonds are ___ bonds
A ___ bond is weaker than a ___ bond because sideways overlap is less effective than end to end overlap.
pi π, sigmaδ
A double bond consists of...
one sigma bond and one pi bond
The combination of orbitals to form bonds is viewed as the combination of ___ ___.
___ wave functions (__) combine to form ___ wave functions (__)
atomic (AOs), molecular (MOs)
Addition of AOs form a ___ MO, which has a region of high electron density between the nuclei
Subtraction of AOs forms a ___ MO, which has a node, or region of zero electron density, between the nuclei
An MO diagram, just like an atomic orbital diagram, shows the ___ ___ and ___ __ ___ in each MO
relative energy, number of electrons
Bond order is calculated as follows...
1/2 [(number of electrons in bonding MO)-(number of electrons in antibonding MO)]
A ___ ___ ___ shows the type of MO and the number of electrons each contains
molecular electron configuration
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
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Poly-atomic Ions (UAH CH-121)
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