western civ chs. 9, 10, 11, 12, 13 terms
Terms in this set (57)
a class of hereditary nobility in medieval Europe; a warrior class who shared a distinctive lifestyle based on the institution of knighthood, although there were social divisions within the group based on extremes of wealth.
a code of ethics that knights were expected to uphold.
beginning in the middle ages, an economic system in which people invest in trade and goods to make profits.
inhabitants of boroughs and burghs.
an association of people with common interests and concerns specially people working in the same craft.
the philosophical and theological system of the medieval schools, which emphasized the rigorous analysis of contradictory authorities.
chanson de geste
a form of vernacular literature in the high middle ages that consisted of heroic epics focusing on the deeds of warriors,
a term used to describe the art and especially the architecture of europe in the twelve and thirteen centuries characterized by rounded arches, thick walls, and a few windows.
a term used to describe the art especially the architecture of Europe in the twelve, thirteen, and fourteen centuries characterized by pointed arches, flying buttresses, and large stain glass windows.
the everyday language of a region, as distinguish from a language used for especial purposes.
in medieval Europe, an association of townspeople bound together by a sword oath for the purpose of obtaining basic liberties from the lord of the territories in which the town was located.
a member of a school of thought in medieval Europe that held that only individual objects are real and that universals are only names created by humans.
a subscriber to a system of thought that held that individual objects are real and that universals either exist in the objects themselves (Aristotle) or in the mind of God (plato).
rites believed to convey God's grace in the catholic church considered imperative for a christian's salvation.
the administrative stuff of the catholic church
a title taken by Turkish leaders who took command of the Abbasid Empire in 1055
in the middle ages, a military campaign in defense of Christendom
the Russian nobility
law of the entire kingdom of England
in Spain, the reconquest of muslims lands by Christian rulers and their armies
in the catholic church, a censure by which a region or country is deprived of receiving the sacraments.
the bones of Christian saints or objects intimately associated with saints that were considered worthy of veneration
the practice in which someone, other than a member of the clergy chooses a bishop and invested him with the symbols of both, his temporal office and his spiritual office.
a christian sacrament in which consecrated bread and wine are consumed in celebration of Jesus last supper, aka the lord's supper or communion
hostility toward or discrimination against Jews
the crisis in the late medieval church when there were first two and then three popes; ended by the council of Constance (1414-1418).
organized massacre of jews
in the fourteen century, money payment for military service that replace the obligation of military service in the lord-vassal relationship
leaders of bands of mercenary soldiers in Renaissance Italy who sold their service to the highest bidder
the outbreak of plague in the mid fourteenth century that killed from 25 to 50 percent of Europe's population
a movement in the fourteenth and fifteenth century europe that held that final authority in spiritual matters resided with the general church council, not the Pope
the immediate experience of oneness with God
a movement founded by Gerard Groote in the fourteenth century, aimed at a practical mysticism based on leading lives serving the needs of fellow human beings
one of the traditional tripartite divisions of European society based on heredity and quality rather than wealth or economic standing.
the rebirth of classical culture that occurred in Italy between 1350 and 1550
emphasis on, and interest in the unique traits of each person
the appointment of family members to important political positions
the process of becoming more concern with material,worldly, temporal things and less with spiritual and religious things.
the government of France, England, and Spain at the end of the fifteenth century, whose rulers succeeded in reestablishing or extending centralized royal authority, supressing the nobility, controlling the church, and insisting on the loyalty of all peoples living in their territories.
intellectual movement of the Italian Renaissance that saw Cicero, who was both an intellectual and a statement, as the idea and held that humanists should be involved in government and use their rhetorical training in the service of the state.
a doctrine that equates God with the universe and all that is in it.
an intellectual movement in Renaissance Italy based on the study of the Greek and Roman classics,
an intellectual movement beginning in fifteenth century that taught that divinity is embodied on all aspects of nature.
the traditional tripartite division of European society based on heredity and quality rather than wealth or economic standing, first established in the middle ages and continuing into the eighteenth century. consisted on those who pray, clergy, and those who fight, the nobility, and those who work, all the rest.
a revival of platonic philosophy in the third century C.E. associated with Plotinus. A similar revival in the Italian Renaissance, associated with Marsilio Ficino who attempted to synthesize Christianity and Platonism.
a group that emerged during the french wars of religions of the sixteenth century, placed politics above religion and believed that no religious truth was worth the ravages of civil war.
english protestants inspired by calvinist theology who wished to remove all traces of catholicism from the church of England.
the movement for the reform of the catholic church in the sixteenth century.
the belief that the end of the world is at hand and the kingdom of God is about to be establish on earth.
a doctrine of the roman catholic church that during the eucharist, the substance of the bread and wine is miraculously transformed into the body and blood of Jesus.
the primary doctrine of the protestant reformation, teaching that humans are saved, not through good works, but by the grace of God, bestowed freely through the sacrifice of Jesus.
the belief associated with Calvinism that God has predetermined those who will be saved.
intellectual movement in northern Europe in the late fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries that combined the interests in the classics of the Italian Renaissance with an interest in the sources of early Christianity, including the new testament and the writings of the early church fathers.
the practice of holding several church offices at the same time.
one of the seven sacraments of the catholic church. it provided for the forgiveness of sins.
in Christian theology, the remission of part or all of the temporal punishment in purgatory due to sin; granted for charitable contributions and other good deeds.
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