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COMD3120 EXAM 2 Unit 7
Terms in this set (31)
an acceptably produced target phoneme can be generalized to new contexts through a program of BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION.
teaches one sound at a time through KEY WORDS.
Paired-Stimuli Approach: Word level
1) Target sound is selected
2) 4 key words chosen. (2 initial, and 2 final position)
3) Training words chosen.
4) Client progresses through all key words
5) Criterion: 80% correct target sounds in words over 2 successive probes, before moving on to Sentence Level.
word in which the target sound is produced correctly at least 90% of the time.
10 words that have the same error in the same word position and are produced in error 2/3 of the time.
Paired-Stimuli Approach: Sentence Level
Key words are paired with 10 training words (as in Word Level), but the clinician points to a training word and asks a question that evokes the target response in a sentence.
Client moves through all key words.
Criteriaon: 80% correct before moving on to Conversation Level
Paired-Stimuli Approach: Conversation Level
Engage the child in conversation.
Clinician stops the conversation when the child:
A. Correctly produces a target sound in 4 Words, OR
B. The child incorrectly produces a target sound in ANY Word.
Paired-Stimuli Approach: Criteria for Finishing Training
Training is finished when the child produces target correctly on 15 CONSECUTIVE OPPORTUNITIES in CONVERSATION held on TWO SUCCESSIVE treatment sessions separated by at least ONE DAY.
Steps on Paired-Stimuli Protocol
1) Operation: teach key word
2) Response Required for Reinforcement
going from key word to target word and back and forth through the 10 words.
Minimal Contrast Approach (general)
Attaches meaning to the error productions as well as target productions.
Contrast the two productions, not in phonetic differences, but in meaning.
Then sound can be generalized/transferred through minimal pairs approach and play activities.
Minimal Contrast Approach (steps)
1) Model both words (ex. "frill...thrill")
2) have client identify both words, and name both words. Show pictures.
3) Have the client name both words, and you identify
Deliberate Speech Approach (general)
as a client produces slower speech, he becomes more aware of errors produced in his own speech and how they are produced correctly by the clinician.
Try to get the child to slow down their rate of speech.
Deliberate Speech Approach (steps)
1) DESCRIBE the concept of rate reduction and accurate production (ex. Turtle Talk)
2) DEMONSTRATE how it is used. Use picture of turtle and move the turtle along as you talk.
3) DISCRIMINATION "tell me when I use Turtle Talk"
4) PRODUCTION: single words, imitated phrases, short sentences, spontaneous sentences, short periods - 5 mins, longer periods.
-the language and phonolical characterists, properties and rules of linguistically diverse child's primary language
-how the primary language affects the learning of the 2nd
-determine whether there is a disorder in the child's first language, 2nd language, or both. Make sure the child is also tested in their NATIVE language.
a simplified and limited system of communication that develops OUT OF NECESSITY when 2 communities with NO COMMON LANGUAGE are forced by circumstances to communicate.
more complex system of primary communication with its own phonologic, semantic, syntactic, and pragmatic rules.
African American English - Characteristics
/l/ & /r/ lessening or omission
f for voiceless /th/ in word final or medial position
d for voiced th in initial and final medial position
v for voiced th in word final position
differing syllable stress patterns
metathetic productions (aks for ask)
devoiceing/deletion of final consonants.
Native American - Characteristics
Glottal Stop is common
p, t, k - unaspirated
vowels may be voiced or voiceless. voiceless vowels are whispered.
Native American -- Communication Style
eye contact avoided
mothers may be silent with infants
children discouraged from speaking until articulation is acurate
one learns by listening and observing. respect is highly valued.
Asian and Pacific Islander - Characteristics
final consonant deletion
emphasis on the wrong syllable
Spanish - Characteristics
/t, d, n/ may be dentalized
devoicing of final consonants
initial /h/ is silent
/s/ is produced more frontally
learn 2 languages at the same time
one language acquired later in life, after first language is established
switching between to languages or dialects depending on the audience
conveying ORAL info. into other language
conveying WRITTEN info. into other language
a word from an alternate language is used within a given sentence. "dame el fork"
message is interpreted into the 2nd language after it has been spoken in the 1st
message is conveyed at the same time as it is being produced.
ex: sign language
written documents which are prepared beforehand
written documents are translated orally at the same time they are being read.
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