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Terms in this set (39)
Dutch settlers in Cape colony in Southern Africa
Genoese captain in service of King and Queen of Castile and Aragon; successfully sailed to New World and returned in 1492; indicated European discoveries in America.
Biological and ecological exchange that took place following Spanish establishment of colonies in Neww World; peoples of Europe and Africa came to New World; animals, plants and diseases of two hemispheres were transferred.
Nations, usually European, that enjoyed profit from world economy; controlled international banking and commercial services such as shipping; exported manufactured goods for raw materials.
Portuguese navigator who led the Spanish expedition of 1519-1522 that was the first to sail around the world.
Portuguese Prince responsible for direction of series of expeditions along the African coast in the 15th century; marked beginning of western European expansion.
Economic theory that stressed governments promotion of limitation of imports from other nations and internal economies in order to improve tax revenues; popular during 17th and 18th centuries in Europe.
People of mixed European and Indian ancestry in Meso America and South America; particularly prevalent in areas colonized by Spain; of ten part of forced labor system.
Seven Years War
Fought both in continental Europe and also in overseas colonies between 1756 and 1763; resulted in Prussian seizures of land from Austria, English seizures of colonies in India and North America.
(1475-1519) First Spanish captain to begin settlement on the mainland of Mesoamerica in1509; initial settlement eventually led to conquest of Aztec and Inca empires by other captains
Portuguese explorer; in 1497-1498 he led the first naval expedition from Europe to sail to India, opening an important commercial sea route.
Dutch colony establishment at Cape of Good Hope in 1652 initially to provide a coastal station for the Dutch seaborne empire; by 1770 settlements had expanded sufficiently to come into conflict with Bantus.
Spanish explorer who conquered the Incas in what is now Peru and founded the city of Lima (1475-1541)
British East India Company
(1600-1858) was originally a private company granted a trade monopoly with the East Indies by Queen Elizabeth I. Its success in extracting concessions from native rulers eventually led to its de facto control over much of modern India between 1757 and 1858.
Line of Demarcation
the Pope's division of the New World between the Spanish and Portuguese.
established in 1493 to define Spanish and Portuguese possessions in the Americas.
Instrument copied by Europeans from Arabs, who had learned it from the Chinese.
a small, fast Spanish or Portuguese sailing ship of the 15th-17th centuries.
innovation allowed the Ottoman Empire to expand
an explosive mixture, as of potassium nitrate, sulfur, and charcoal, used in shells and cartridges, in fireworks, for blasting
Dutch East India Company
was originally established as a chartered company in 1602; Dutch government granted it a 21-year monopoly on the Dutch spice trade. pioneering early model of the multinational corporation in its modern sense, often considered to be the world's first transnational corporation. early 1600s, became first company in history to issue bonds, shares of stock to general public. Was world's first formally listed public company because it was first corp to be ever actually listed on an official (formal) stock exchange. first historical model of the quasi-fictional concept of the megacorporation, possessed quasi-governmental powers, including ability to wage war, imprison and execute convicts, negotiate treaties, strike its own coins, establish colonies.
Portuguese explorer who in 1488 led the first expedition to sail around the southern tip of Africa from the Atlantic and sight the Indian Ocean.
Ferdinand and Isabella
monarchs of Christian kingdoms; their marriage created the future Spain; initiated exploration of New World
Portuguese leader of an expedition to India; landed Brazil in 1500
Sir Francis Drake
vice admiral was an English sea captain, privateer, navigator, slaver, and politician of the Elizabethan era. carried out the second circumnavigation of the world, from 1577 to 1580.
in 1597, he explored the coast of north america for england
was an English sea explorer and navigator in the early 17th century. made two attempts on behalf of English merchants to find a prospective Northwest Passage to Cathay via a route above the Arctic Circle.
Battle of Lepanto
Turkish sea power was destroyed in 1571 by a league of Christian nations organized by the pope
A spanish directed fleet defeated navy of Ottoman Empire in this battle. Hope of successful Muslim rivalry against Europe naval power ends
New world _____ spread rapidly via western merchants (corn, sweet potatoes in China, Mediterranean and parts of Africa
Triggered large pop. Increase
Potato introduced in Europe around 1700
growing commercialization created this In West; people without access to wealth producing property
tax imposed on imported goods and services.
a readily salable crop that is grown and gathered for the market (as vegetables or cotton or tobacco)
any of several low-denomination coins of China, India, and the East Indies, especially a Chinese copper coin.
a general increase in prices and fall in the purchasing value of money.. Origin in 19th century
one of a group of radicals arising during the English Civil War and advocating equality before the law and religious toleration.
an economic system based on open competition in a free market, in which individuals and companies own the means of production and operate for profit
was one of the key developments in the industrialization of weaving during the early Industrial Revolution. It allowed a single weaver to weave much wider fabrics, and it could be mechanized, allowing for automatic machine looms.
Domestic Manufacturing System
workers make products in their own homes with materials supplied by entrepreneurs.
Treaty of Paris
In 1763 settled the 7 yr war. France regained West Indian sugar islands, African trading posts. Britain took Canada, Mississippi basin. France lost colony
Was the last emperor of the Inca Empire.He was invited to a dinner and kidnapped by fought unsuccessfully against Pizarro and spent the rest of his life in captivity. the Inca empire raised a large ransom for his return, but after it was paid he was executed Pizarro
Englishman and Quaker who founded the colony of Pennsylvania (1644-1718). Founded it so others could be free of persecution.
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