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What is Sport and Exercise Psychology?
Sport and Exercise Psychology is the study of human thought, emotion and behavior in physical activity. The study of ABC's of physical activity.
What are the ABC's of physical activity?
Behavior: movement or physical activity
Cognition: mental processes
An activity involving physical activity and skill which an individual or team competes against another or others.
Organized activity requiring physical effort carried out especially to sustain or improve health and fitness
A bodily movement above resting level often to enhance and maintain physical fitness and overall health or wellness
Insufficient participation in physical activity during leisure
Too much sitting during commuting; in work place and domestic environment and during leisure time.
What are two distinct health problems?
Too little exercise and too much of sedentary behavior
What are the types of behaviors of human movement?
Active and Sedentary are two types of behaviors of human movement
4 domains or types
-work or school
-household, domestic chores
What are the measures of Active Behavior?
Active behavior measures include the type, frequency, intensity, and duration.
-Nondiscretionary: Sitting while working or when you are at school.
-Discretionary: sitting when watching TV, reading, etc.
What are the characteristics of human movement?
-Movement associated with physical activity behavior (not sedentary)
-The physical activity and human movement are related, but not identical.
-Our data collection methods measure 2 different things: participants reporting behavior, and devices measuring motion.
-Important to make sure measure matches purpose of exercise.
What are the two consequences of human movement?
The two consequences are Energy Expenditure and Physical Fitness
-Physical activity-related energy expenditure allows for a low percentage of daily energy expenditure
-Measured in a lab setting
5 dimensions of health related fitness
- cardiorespiratory fitness
-balance and coordination
Measured in a lab setting or clinical setting
What is the updated definition of Physical Activity?
The updated definition of physical activity is the behavior that involves human movement, resulting in physiological attributes including increased energy expenditure and improved physical fitness.
Important points of physical activity
1.) Human Movement is beneficially related to health.
2.) Lack of movement is considered health compromising.
Health Benefits of Physical Activity - Major Research Findings
• Reduces risk of many adverse health outcomes
• Some physical activity is better than none
• Additional benefits occur as amount of activity increases through higher intensity, greater frequency, longer duration.
• Both aerobic (endurance) and muscle-strengthening (resistance) are beneficial.
• Benefits occur for those with disabilities, different ages, racial backgrounds, ethnicities, etc.
• Benefits far outweigh possibility of adverse outcomes
Children and Adolescents: Strong Evidence
• Strong Evidence
o Improved cardiorespiratory & muscular fitness
o Improved bone health
o Improved cardiovascular & metabolic health
o Favorable body composition
Children and Adolescents: Moderate Evidence
o Reduced symptoms of depression
Adults and Older Adults: Strong Evidence
o Lower risk of early death
o Lower risk of coronary heart disease
o Lower risk of stroke
o Lower risk of high blood pressure
o Lower risk of adverse blood lipid profile
o Lower risk of type 2 diabetes
o Lower risk of metabolic syndrome
o Lower risk of colon cancer
o Lower risk of breast cancer
o Prevention of weight gain
o Weight loss, particularly when combined with reduced calorie intake
o Improved cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness
o Prevention of falls
o Reduced depression
o Better cognitive function (for older adults
Adults and Other Adults: Moderate to Strong Evidence
o Better functional health (for older adults)
o Reduced abdominal obesity
Adults and Other Adults: Moderate Evidence
o Lower risk of hip fracture
o Lower risk of lung cancer
o Lower risk of endometrial cancer
o Weight maintenance after weight
o Increased bone density
o Improved sleep quality
Growing Body of Evidence On How Exercise Improves Mental Health
• Mental health benefits from regular exercise
o Reduces stress and increases relaxation
o Boost happy chemicals (ex: endorphins) to fight depression
o Improve self-confidence and self-esteem and improve your positive self-image
o Prevent cognitive decline
o Alleviate anxiety
o Boost brainpower
o Sharpen memory
o Help control addiction
Other unexpected benefits of regular exercise and physical activity
o Improved sexual function
o Changes in gene expression
o Better skin
o Healthy eyes
o Better sleep
o Fewer migraines
o Boosted immunity
o More birthdays
Why do we need physical activity guidelines?
We do not know what specific amount of exercise we need to do.
We know that physical activity is important and related to health and wellness.
Guidelines say that ADULTS should...
• 150 minutes of moderate intensity every week
• 75 minutes of vigorous intensity every week.
o Current guidelines say that you can break this up into 10 minute bouts, but evidence isn't supported.
o More time you exercise, the more benefits.
Guidelines say that CHILDREN should...
• Children should get 60 minutes or more each and every day.
• Major spent doing aerobics
• Vigorous intensity 3 days a week
• 3 days per week of muscle-strengthening
• 3 days of bone strengthening (cardio)
What should pregnant women do?
Pregnant women should get 150 minutes per week during and after pregnancy.
Estimated Direct costs of Physical Activity globally
• $53.8 Billion
• North American gets 25.7 billion of the direct costs of physical inactivity globally.
• Larger amounts of money in the developed countries such as North America, Europe, etc.
• TOTAL costs of physical inactivity estimated to be $67.5 billion globally
Individual costs of inadequate physical activity in the U.S
• $713 in insufficiently active adults annually
• $1,437 in inactive adults annually
Healthy People 2020
• National agenda that communicates a vision for improving health and achieving health equity.
• A set of specific, measurable objectives with targets to be achieved over the decade.
o Identify nationwide health improvement priorities
o Identify critical research, evaluation, and data collection needs.
o Engage public awareness and understanding.
Why Do We Engage in Meaningful Movement Across the Lifespan?
Healthy Behaviors, Health Education, Interventions,
Healthy Behaviors are any behavior that enhances or maintains health
Health Education is the attempt to teach people to limit behaviors that are detrimental to health and to increase those that are conducive to health
Interventions are programs designed to assess and change health behaviors
What influences a person's behavior?
Personality, Environment, Individual Motivation
What determines health behaviors?
o Biology: genetic predispositions, age, weight, gender
o Psychology: personality
o Society: being exposed to something in a society, by peers or by media
Operant Learning Theory (OLT)
Behavior --> Result
-Result --> Positive Reward -->Behavior is repeated
-Result --> Ignored, not Rewarded --> Behavior isn't repeated
o Results of our behavior is KEY.
Social Cognitive Theory (SCT)
Adds the following to Operant Learning Theory
Ex. Modeling --> Expectancies--> Behavior -->Results
o Too broad, cannot consistently measure.
Health Belief Model (HBM)
o Whether we participate in a certain behavior is determined by our beliefs
o Behavior will be acted upon if they believe they are susceptible and if they can reduce the illness.
Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA)
Attitude (beliefs) and Social Norms (social perspective) --> Intentions --> Behavior
Issues with this theory:
-Intentions do not always predict behavior
Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB)
Attitude + Social Norms + Perceived Control --> Intentions --> Behavior
Intentions are dependent on their attitude towards the behavior and their perceived social norms.
-Beliefs drive intention, Intention drives behavior, Behavior happens
Trans-theoretical Model (TTM)
-Developed to identify common themes across different interventions theories
-Assessing a person's readiness to change and enhancing motivation through a series of techniques
Steps of the Trans-Theoretical Model
Denying a negative behavior
Realizing behavior is wrong, contemplating changing behavior
Changing behavior in near future, adding up steps to change behavior.
Following through with plan
Maintaining change in behavior
Relapsing back to old behavior
Self efficacy begins to increase as behavior plays out.
Comparing the theories and models of health behavior change
o All models have empirical support
o HBM components have been supported but beliefs about severity are less predictive
o TPB and TTM are missing elements, such as perceived susceptibility
o A combination of the models could be most predictive
Precaution Adoption Process Model (PAPM)
o Very similar to TTM
o Backward movement is possible
o Cross-sectional: from one point in time
Self-Determination Theory (SDT)
o People have needs for
o High autonomous motivation and perceived competence are more likely to engage in behavior change.
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