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Terms in this set (80)
What type of engines are on the EMB-145?
Rolls Royce AE3007A1
What is the maximum takeoff thrust?
7,426 lbs. at sea level and ISA +30.
Describe the AE3007 engine.
The AE3007 is a high bypass ratio, two-spool axial flow turbofan engine.
Describe the fan module (N1).
It is a 24 blade single stage fan. The air is split into bypass air and air that goes into the compressor.
Describe the high pressure compressor (N2).
14 stages. Compressor Variable Geometry (CVG) stators are provided for stages 1 - 5 and the inlet guide vanes. Bleed air tappings are on the 9th and 14th stages.
Describe the high pressure turbine.
2 stages. It converts the high pressure gasses into mechanical energy to drive the compressor.
Describe the low pressure turbine.
3 stages. It turns the fan module (N1). Air exits the LPT, mixes with the bypass air, and provides thrust.
What turns the accessory gear box?
What does the accessory gear box house?
Hydraulic Pump, Electrical Generators(2), Air Turbine Starter, Permanent Magnet Alternator, Oil Pump, and Fuel Pump and Metering Unit.
What are the components of the Engine Fuel System?
The Engine Fuel System has a Fuel Pump and Metering Unit (FPMU), a Fuel Cooled Oil Cooler (FCOC), a Compressor Variable Geometry (CVG) actuator, a fuel flow meter and fuel nozzles.
What controls the FPMU?
What is the function of the Fuel Cooled Oil Cooler?
It simultaneously warms the engine fuel and cools the engine oil.
What controls Compressor Variable Geometry?
What determines CVG position?
The FADEC has a schedule of vane position versus corrected gas generator (N2) speeds.
What moves the CVG position?
FPMU fuel pressure
How many fuel nozzles are there?
Where is the fuel flow measured?
Between the FPMU and the fuel nozzles.
How many heat exchangers does the Oil System have?
2. An Air Cooled Oil Cooler and a Fuel Cooled Oil Cooler.
Where are the oil temperature and pressure sensors located?
At the FCOC outlet.
What is the capacity of the oil tank?
When will the low oil sensor come on?
What is the primary source of electrical power for the engine control and ignition systems?
Permanent Magnet Alternator (PMA)
Is there a backup source for the igniters?
No, just the PMA
At what N2 will the PMA supply electrical power to the ignition and FADEC's respectively?
10% and 50%
What does the PMA supply power to?
Both FADEC's, A and B. Both igniters, A and B. The Thrust Rating Mode Buttons in case of an electrical emergency.
Does the engine control system require a power source other than the PMA?
Yes. The essential DC bus for engine starting and as a backup source.
What system controls the ignition exciter's?
Each exciter is controlled by a separate FADEC: FADEC A - IGN A. FADEC B - IGN B.
What does placing the Ignition Selector Knob ton ON do?
-both ignitions turn on during start at about 10% N2. -Both ignitions will stay on after start. -Both ignitions will turn on if engines are running.
What does placing the Ignition Selector Knob to Ignition AUTO do?
-Only the active FADEC turns on associated ignition at about 14% N2. -FADEC deactivates ignition after start cycle is complete(56.4% N2). -Both ignitions are turned on during inflight restarts at 10% N2. -The auto relight function can activate Ignition System.
What does placing the Ignition Selector Knob to Ignition OFF do?
-If engine is not running, the FADEC neither activates ignition nor actuates Engine Fuel Metering Valve. -If engine is running, FADEC does not close Engine Fuel Metering Valve.
When should the ignitions be ON for start?
Ignition should be on prior to engine start when the OAT is below 5C and the engine has not been run in 90 minutes.
What make up the Engine Pneumatic Starting System?
Air Turbine Starter and Starting Control Valve.
What is the function of the Starting Control Valve?
It regulates the pressure supplied to the ATS and provides isolation from the Pneumatic System following engine start completion.
How is the SCV controlled?
It is pneumatically actuated and electrically contolled. It is spring loaded to the closed position.
When would you get an EICAS E1(2) ATS SOV OPEN caution message?
When the SCV stays open after 53% N2 plus 10 seconds.
When would you get an EICAS E1(2) FUEL LO TEMP indication?
When the fuel leaving the FCOC drops below 5C.
What are the components of the Engine Control System?
FADEC, FPMU, PMA, Control Pedestal, and Powerplant Control Panels
What is the main purpose for the engine FADEC's to be connected to the opposite engine FADEC's?
To implement Thrust Reverse Interlock and ATTCS.
Which FADEC is used during engine start?
They alternate for each start, regardless of last FADEC being used.
How can control be transferred from the active FADEC to the standby FADEC?
It can happen either automatically or manually via the FADEC Slelector Knob.
Will a manually alternated FADEC overide an automatically alternated one?
Yes, unless the FADEC alternated to cannot control the engine.
What happens when the active FADEC detects faults?
It borrows data from the standby FADEC. If the standby FADEC's data is not available, the FADEC will use default data or switch to reversionary mode.
When will the active FADEC automatically switch control to the standby FADEC?
When the active FADEC detects a fault which will result in degraded engine operation or will render it unable to control the engine.
What is N1 Target and how is it calculated?
It is the maximum thrust for a given thrust rating mode, pressure altitude, mach number, temperature(REF TO TEMP for takeoff, ADC TAT in flight) and anti-ice condition(REF A-ICE for takeoff and actual Anti-ice System in flight).
What is N1 Request?
It is a function of N1 Target and Thrust Lever Angle.
There is only one IDLE position on the TLA pedestal, but how many IDLE ratings?
Two, a ground IDLE and a flight IDLE.
What is ground idle speed?
-Avoid engine flameout, overtemperature, or an inability to accelerate. -Provide the required air bleed flow pressure and temperature for the ECS. -Provide required N2 to drive the accessories.
What is flight idle thrust?
-Avoid engine flameout, overtemperature, or an inability to accelerate. -Provide the required air bleed flow pressure and temperature for the ECS and Anti-icing System. -Enable acceleration from flight idle to 100% of Go-Around Thrust in 8 seconds at or less below 9,500 ft.
What are the N1/N2 Overspeed protections?
Fuel flow is limited to avoid excessive rotor speed. Automatic engine shutdown is initiated if an overspeed condition has been detected.
What are the N1/N2 Underspeed protections?
Shutdown is commanded if N2 drops below 53%.
What is ITT limiting?
FADEC will control fuel flow to keep ITT within limits.
What happens if the N1 signal is lost?
The FADEC will control the engine by governing N2 speeds. Transient times may be greater. Min and Max thrust may be higher/lower respectively.
When is ATTCS armed?
-ALT T/O-1 is selected, the aircraft is on the ground, and the engine is running. -The TLA is above 45 degrees.
When is ATTCS triggered?
-An engine inop condition is received or a TLA limited to IDLE signal. -The opposite engine TLA is reduced below 38 degrees. -Opposite engine is not armed 2 seconds after engine is armed. -One side disarms ATTCS and the other does not within 2 seconds.
When will ATTCS disarm?
-TLA reduced below 42 degrees after armed. -ATTCS is triggered. -No ATTCS capable mode is selected.
How many locks does the Thrust Reverse system have and how do they function?
3. Primary and secondary are electrically controlled and hydraulically actuated. Third is all electric.
What actuates the reverser doors?
The FADEC will command maximum reverse thrust under what logic?
On the ground, thrust reverser deployed, thrust lever is requesting reverse thrust, and when either: -Both main landing gears on the ground and wheels above 25 knots, OR -All three landing gears on the ground
What protection avoids uncommanded reverse thrust asymmetry?
If one engine is inoperative or if one thrust reverser is not deployed, the operative side FADEC will only command reverse thrust if the it's associated FADEC is requesting reverse thrust and the other thrust lever is at IDLE.
What prevents thrust reverser deployment in flight?
A flight idle stop prevents inadvertent thrust lever movement below idle in flight.
LIMITATIONS: ENGINES Automatic Takeoff Thrust Control System
The EMB 135 and 140 aircraft must have ATTCS armed for takeoffs when using T/O or ALT T/O-1 modes. The 145 aircraft must have ATTCS armed for takeoffs when using ALT T/O-1.
LIMITATIONS: ENGINES Engine Cool Down After Landing or High Power Runs
Run each engine for a minimum of one minute at idle or taxi thrust before shutdown.
LIMITATIONS: ENGINES Engine Oil Level
The minimum dispatch oil quantity is eight quarts before Engine Start or seven quarts after Engine Start.
LIMITATIONS: ENGINES Engine Type
-EMB 145 - AE3007A1. -EMB 135/140 - AE3007A1/3
LIMITATIONS: ENGINES Engine Warm Up Prior To Takeoff
The engines must be allowed to run at low thrust to stabilize engine temperatures before takeoff thrust is selected. Run the engine at idle or taxi thrust a minimum of four minutes for cold engines and two minutes for warm engines. An engine is considered cold if it has been shutdown for more than 90 minutes. Prior to increasing N2 above 83% the engine oil temperature must be a minimum of 40°C. In lieu of this minimum oil temperature limit, it is acceptable to run the engine for at least 8 minutes prior to advancing the Thrust Levers for takeoff.
LIMITATIONS: ENGINES Operating Limitations T/O-1 [A1] T/O RSV [A1/3]
(5 min. limit*:) ITT-948_N1 Max-100_N2 Min/Max-57.0 - 102.4_Oil Pressure-(1)(2)(3) Green Range (50-110)_Oil Temperature-(4) Green Range (21 - 126)
LIMITATIONS: ENGINES Operating Limitations T/O-1 [A1/3] T/O [A1/3]
(5 min. limit*:) ITT-929_N1 Max-100_N2 Min/Max-57.0 - 102.4_Oil Pressure-(1)(2)(3) Green Range (50-110)_Oil Temperature-(4) Green Range (21 - 126)
LIMITATIONS: ENGINES Operating Limitations ALT T/O-1
(5 min. limit*:) ITT-917_N1 Max-100_N2 Min/Max-57.0 - 102.4_Oil Pressure-(1)(2)(3) Green Range (50-110)_Oil Temperature-(4) Green Range (21 - 126)
LIMITATIONS: ENGINES Operating Limitations (6)Max Continuous
(5 min. limit*:) ITT-901_N1 Max-100_N2 Min/Max-57.0 - 102.4_Oil Pressure-(1)(2)(3) Green Range (50-110)_Oil Temperature-(4) Green Range (21 - 126)
LIMITATIONS: ENGINES Operating Limitations Engine Start
LIMITATIONS: ENGINES Operating Limitations N1 and N2 Turbine
LIMITATIONS: ENGINES Operating Limitations (1)
May be exceeded during starts if oil temperature is below 21°C.
LIMITATIONS: ENGINES Operating Limitations (2)
Minimum oil pressure: — Below 88% N2 is 34 psi. — At or above 88% N2 is 50 psi. However, operation between 34 and 50 psi is permitted during takeoff and go-around phases.
LIMITATIONS: ENGINES Operating Limitations (3)
Engines may operate in the amber range up to 115 psi for five minutes in all thrust modes. Operations in the amber range above 115 psi up to 155psi is permitted for up to two minutes. Total time in amber range may not exceed five minutes. Operation in the red range is not authorized, for any aircraft. Any exceedance must be monitored and logged in the AML by the crew.
LIMITATIONS: ENGINES Operating Limitations (4)
Minimum oil temperature for starting is -40°C. Minimum oil temperature for takeoff is 40°C. If oil temperature is less than 40°C perform Engine Warm Up Prior to Takeoff Procedures located in this section.
LIMITATIONS: ENGINES Operating Limitations (5)
May be exceeded up to top of the amber range for five minutes during takeoff or go-around phases or 10 seconds during remaining flight phases. High vibration indicates a malfunction which may worsen and increase vibration severity, therefore continuous operation with engine vibration in the amber range is not recommended. According to engine vibration limits, pilots may elect not to reduce TLA for vibration below the top of the amber range for five minutes during takeoff or go-around phases or 10 seconds during remaining flight phases. If vibration returns to the green range within 5 minutes, the flight may continue, but vibration causes should be investigated before the next flight. Vibration during any phase of flight in the amber range up to 1.5 IPS for less than 30 seconds does not require maintenance action.
LIMITATIONS: ENGINES Operating Limitations (6)
For use during OEI operation or emergency only.
LIMITATIONS: ENGINES Operating Limitations (7)
EMB 135 and 140 aircraft have "Max Allowed ITT" cockpit placards that were part of the aircraft's certification. The ITT limits for these ATTCS capable modes provide enough ITT margin after ATTCS triggers to prevent exceeding the maximum takeoff thrust ITT limit.
LIMITATIONS: ENGINES Starter Limits On Ground
-Starting or Dry Motoring...Up to 5 min. ON, 5 min. OFF_OR_First to Fourth Cycles...1 min. ON, 1 min. OFF. Following Cycles...1 min. ON, 5 min. OFF.
LIMITATIONS: ENGINES Starter Limits In Flight
Maximum Continuous Operation Time...5 min. ON. No cool down time is required.
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