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50 terms

General Psychology Chapter 11

STUDY
PLAY
Higher GPAs in both high school and college are correlated with which of the following personality traits?
conscientiousness
Which of the following personality traits, when seen in married individuals, reduces the risk of divorce?
conscientiousness
Which of the following personality traits has been shown to be related to health and well-being to such a degree that individuals high in this trait live longer than other people?
conscientiousness
The _____ movement in psychology was intended to answer the critics of behavioral psychology who pointed out that behaviorists ignored the underlying mental processes of personality
social cognitive
Terracciano, et al (2005) studied which of the following variables related to personality theories?
national character
According to Rogers what type of love influences children to overcome feeling of unworthiness?
unconditional
The two aspects of an individual's behavior that are central to the concept of personality are
consistency and distinctiveness
Raymond Cattell used factor analysis to reduce a huge list of personality traits compiled by Gordon Allport down to _____ basic dimensions of personality
16
Marcos is very quiet and avoids large groups. Some people consider him unfriendly, and he seldom takes a stand or acts assertively. Based on the five-factor model of personality, Macros would probably score
high in neuroticism
Julio is extremely dependable and productive, and his friends think he is great at organizing events. Based on the five-factor model of personality, Julio would probably score
high in conscientiousness
Janelle is suspicious and uncooperative. Her friends think she is a boastful person who is seldom sympathetic. Based on the five-factor model of personality, Janelle would probably score
low in agreeableness
The component of personality that operates according to the reality principle is the
ego
Jason just sat down to work on his term paper when his friends called and invited him to a party. If Jason decides he will only go to the party after he finishes outlining the term paper, his decision reflects the functioning of his
ego
According to psychoanalytic theory, a person who is conservative, strict, and moralistic is strongly influenced by her
superego
The thoughts, memories, and desires you have that you do not realize you have are in your _____ awareness
Unconscious
The largely unconscious reactions used to protect a person from unpleasant emotions such as anxiety and guilt are
defense mechanisms
When people give a false but plausible excuse to justify their unacceptable behavior, they are using
rationalization
If she is using the defense mechanism of projection, a mother who actually hates her son would MOST likely be both unaware of her hatred and
`believe that her son hated her
A man who has numerous reasons to hate his mother instead lavishes her with unrealistic amounts of attention and love. He is probably exhibiting the defense mechanism of
reaction formation
When people attempt to bolster their self-esteem by forming an imaginary or real alliance with some person or group, they are using
identification
Failure to resolve conflict at a particular stage of psychosexual development may lead to failure to move forward to the next stage, a phenomenon that Freud called
fixation
The correct order of Freud's psychosexual stages of development is
oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital
The crucial developmental task associated with the anal stage is
toilet training
During the genital stage sexual energy is primarily
focused toward peers of the opposite sex.
According to the psychoanalytic view, many important life choices and decisions are based on
unconscious urges and mechanisms.
Jung termed emotionally charged images and thought forms that have universal meaning in a wide variety of cultures
archetypes
The central aspect of Adler's theory of personality is that people
strive to adapt and master life's challenges
Mark has been unsuccessful in using compensation to help him master life's challenges; according to Adler's theory Mark may exhibit
an inferiority complex
Which of the following definitions of "personality" BEST reflects the views of B.F. Skinner?
a collection of response tendencies that are tied to various stimulus situations
A social cognitive theorist would MOST likely explain the behavior of a spoiled brat in terms of which of the following?
learning through observation and reinforcement
Mary observes another's performance and says, "Gee, I think I can do that." Bandura calls this personal evaluation
self-efficacy
Which psychologist observed that people tend to exhibit far less consistency in their behavior across situations than most other theorists would predict?
Walter Mischel
Mischel would explain an individual's behavior by focusing on
situational factors.
The broad category of personality theory that assumes people are largely conscious and rational beings who are not dominated by unconscious, irrational needs and conflicts is the
biological perspective
The collection of beliefs about one's own nature, unique qualities, and typical behavior is referred to as one's _____, according to Rogers
self-concept
According to Carl Rogers, if your self-concept is reasonably accurate, it is said to be
congruent with reality
According to Rogers, children who experience _____ love or affection tend to develop an incongruent self-concept as a result of blocking from their self-concept those experiences that did not receive parental affection
conditional
Maslow's systematic arrangement of needs, according to priority, in which basic needs must be met before less basic needs are aroused is referred to as
a hierarchy of needs
John, a college student, is very interested in his courses and is planning on attending graduate school in psychology. Which of the following types of needs has John probably NOT yet satisfied?
self-actualization
Maslow describes people who have exceptionally healthy personalities marked by continued personal growth as
self-actualizing
Behavioral genetics, the evolutionary approach, and Eysenck's theory all approach the study of personality from the
biological perspective
The findings from twin studies indicate that identical twins are much more similar than fraternal twins on which of the following?
all the personality traits in the five-factor model of personality
Terror management theory asserts that much of our behavior is motivated by our needs
to defend our worldview and preserve our self-esteem
Consistent with terror management theory, in the months following 9/11, individuals showed all of the following behaviors EXCEPT an
increase in separations and divorces
The American cultural conception of self results in children
developing an independent view of the self and defining themselves in terms of personal attributes
Personality tests that ask individuals to answer a series of questions about their characteristic behavior are referred to as
self-report inventories.
Sylvia is diagnosed with schizophrenia. If she takes the MMPI, the results would be MOST likely to
show high scores on several subscales
Which of the following personality tests was designed to measure the Big Five traits?
NEO Personality Inventory
Janice was shown a series of cards with vague, ambiguous scenes and asked to describe what she thought was happening in each scene. Janice was given a(an) _____ test called the _____.
projective; TAT
You are asked to tell stories about a series of pictures. Which test is being administered to you?
TAT