Psychology Chapters 11 and 12
Terms in this set (53)
Fill in the Blank- The 5 distinct emotional expressions of 1-month old infants
Interest, Surprise, Joy, Anger, and Fear
Early Origins of Achievement Motivation (and briefly define each phase)
Joy in Mastery- infants are visibly pleased to master challenges.
Approval Seeking- anticipate how others will evaluate their performances.
Use of Standards- Children begin to react more independently to their successes and failures.
Our perception or image of our abilities and our uniqueness.
Used to describe a person's overall sense of self- worth or personal value.
Ability to recognize oneself in a mirror or a photograph.
Feelings of self-esteem within a specific relationship context; may differ across relationship context.
Overgeneralized attitudes and behaviors that are considered normal and appropriate for a person.
Gender Similarities Hypothesis
Males and females from childhood to adulthood are more alike than different on most psychological variables.
When child becomes aware of their gender and develops motives, values, and behaviors believed apt for members of that sex.
Social Roles Hypothesis
Psychological differences between the sexes and are created by differences in socially assigned parts that men and women play.
Influences that affect our thought and behavior in social situations.
Multiple Choice- Emotional Self-Regulation
Strategies for managing emotions or adjusting emotional arousal to an apt level of intensity.
Frequent expressions of more positive emotions and relatively infrequent displays of negative ones.
Competent Emotional Knowledge
Ability to correctly identify other people's feelings and factors responsible for those emotions.
Competent Emotional Regulation
Ability to adjust one's experience and expression of emotional arousal to a correct level of intensity to achieve one's goals.
Ability to achieve personal goals in social interactions while continuing to maintain positive relationships with others.
Period in which infants respond in an equally favorable way to interesting social and nonsocial stimuli.
Phase of Indiscriminate Attachments Period
Period which infants prefer.
Phase of Specific Attachment
Between 7 and 9 months of age when infants are attached to one close companion.
Phase of Multiple Attachments
Infants are forming connections to companions other than their primary caregiver.
Helps kids improve both individual gross and fine muscle strength and overall integration of muscles, nerves, brain functions.
Repetition of behavior when new skills are being learned.
Occurs when the child transitions the physical environment into a symbol.
Play that involves interactions with friends.
When children manipulate their environment to create things.
Kids learn the skills to abstract and to experiment with language and emotions.
Matching- Basic Emotions
Present at birth or emerging early in the first year that some theorists believe to be biologically programmed.
Self-conscious emotions that emerge in the second year and depend, in part, on cognitive development.
Use of a caregiver as a base from which to explore the environment.
Learning in which the young of certain species will follow and become attached to moving objects.
Increases the chances of survival for the individual and the species.
Kewpie Doll Effect
Notion that infant-like facial features are perceived as cute and lovable.
Involves intellectual reasoning and efficiently evaluating the evidence.
Ability to think in new and unusual ways and to come up with unique solutions to problems.
Produces one correct answer.
Produces many different answers to the same question.
Obedience and Punishment
At this stage, children see rules as fixed and absolute.
Individualism and Exchange
Children account for individual points of view and judge actions based on how they serve individual needs.
Focused on living up to social expectations and roles.
Maintaining Social Order
People begin to consider society as a whole when making judgements.
Social Contract and Individual Rights
People begin to account for the differing values, opinions, and beliefs of other people.
People follow these internalized principles of justice, even if they conflict with laws and rules.
Which gender has a slight edge over the other gender
Fear and Timidity
Emotional Expressivity/ Sensitivity
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