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John Calvin

Swiss theologian (born in France) whose tenets (predestination and the irresistibly of grace and justification by faith) defined Presbyterianism (1509-1564)

Anne Hutchinson

Puritan dissenter banished from the Massachusetts Bay Colony who fled to Rhode Island in 1638

Roger Williams

He founded Rhode Island for separation of Church and State. He believed that the Puritans were too powerful and was ordered to leave the Massachusetts Bay Colony for his religious beliefs.

Henry Hudson

Discovered what today is known as the Hudson River. Sailed for the Dutch even though he was originally from England. He was looking for a northwest passage through North America.

William Bradford

A Pilgrim, the second governor of the Plymouth colony, 1621-1657. He developed private land ownership and helped colonists get out of debt. He helped the colony survive droughts, crop failures, and Indian attacks.

Peter Stuyvesant

Governor of the Dutch colony of New Netherland

William Laud

Archbishop of Canterbury under Charles I in England. He tried to force the Scottish to use the English Book of Common Prayer. He was later executed by Parliament during the English Civil War.

Thomas Hooker

A Puritan minister who led about 100 settlers out of Massachusetts Bay to Connecticut because he believed that the governor and other officials had too much power. He wanted to set up a colony in Connecticut with strict limits on government.

William Penn

an English Quaker, founded Pennsylvania in 1682, after receiving a charter from King Charles II the year before. He launched the colony as a "holy experiment" based on religious tolerance.

John Winthrop

from the Mass. Bay Colony in the 1630's to become the first governor and to led a religious experiment. He once said, "we shall be a city on a hill."

King Philip

English name for Metacom who forged an alliance among Indians to try to end the spread of English settlement

John Cotton

prominent Mass minister, believed that only the spiritual "elect" should have any authority, to become "elect" they have a conversion experience, caused dissension in colony and would eventually lead to the founding of new colonies

Sir Edmund Andros

Governor of the Dominion of New England from 1686 until 1692, when the colonists rebelled and forced him to return to England

Gustavus Adolphus

Swedish Lutheran who won victories for the German Protestants in the Thirty Years War and lost his life in one of the battles

William and Mary

These people were the king and queen of England after the Glorious Revolution that recognized the supremacy of the English Parliament, the Catholic reign ended


Wampanoag leader who who aided the Pilgrims (1580-1661)

Ferdinando Gorges

Proprietor of Maine until it became part of the Massachusetts Bay Colony

the "elect"

Specific name for the people who are the ones that God has chosen to save in predestination or also known as "the chosen ones". This is the belief of the Calvinism religion and that only these people can be saved and ordinary people cannot earn salvation. started by John Calvin


a business established or operated under an authorization to sell or distribute a company's goods or services in a particular area


doctrine of John Calvin that adhered to the idea that each person's fate is predetermined by God


colonial period; term used to describe indentured servants who had finished their terms of indenture and could live freely on their own land.

"visible saints"

in Calvinism, those who publicly proclaimed their experience of conversion and were expected to lead godly lives


a spiritual enlightenment causing a person to lead a new life

doctrine of a calling

Puritan belief that they are responsible to do God's work on earth


a signed written agreement between two or more parties (nations) to perform some action


the theological doctrine that by faith and God's grace a Christian is freed from all laws (including the moral standards of the culture) it was a puritan belief

sumptuary laws

these regulated the dress of different classes forbidding people from wearing clothes of their social superiors

salutary neglect

British colonial policy during the reigns of George I and George II. relaxed supervision of internal colonial affairs by royal bureaucrats contributed significantly to the rise of American self government

passive resistance

nonviolent action or opposition to authority, often in accord with religious or moral beliefs.

"city upon a hill"

name for Mass. Bay Colony coined by Winthrop to describe how their colony should serve as a model of excellence for future generations

Protestant Reformation

a religious movement of the 16th century that began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in the creation of Protestant churches


one of the colonists from England who sailed to America on the Mayflower and founded the colony of Plymouth in New England in 1620

New England Confederation

Formed to provide for the defense of the four New England colonies, and also acted as a court in disputes between colonies


Protestant sect founded by John Calvin. Emphasized a strong moral code and believed in predestination Calvinists supported constitutional representative government and the separation of church and state.

Massachusetts Bay Company

joint-stock company chartered by Charles I in 1629. It was controlled by Non-Separatists who took the charter with them to New England and, in effect, converted it into a written constitution for the colony.

Dominion of New England

1686-The British government combined the colonies of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, and Connecticut into a single province headed by a royal governor (Andros). Ended in 1692, when the colonists revolted and drove out Governor Andros

Myles Standish

an English born military officer hired by the Pilgrims as military advisor for Plymouth colony. Arriving on the Mayflower, he worked on colonial defense. On February 17, 1622, he was appointed the first commander of Plymouth colony. Later, he served as Plymouth's representative in England, and served as assistant governor and as the colony's treasurer.

Martin Luther

95 Thesis, posted in 1517, led to religious reform in Germany, denied papal power and absolutist rule. Claimed there were only 2 sacraments: baptism and communion.

Michael WIgglesworth

New England clergyman who wrote the popular poem "Day of Doom", which told the horrifying fate of the damned


Native American who helped the English colonists in Massachusetts develop agricultural techniques and served as an interpreter between the colonists and the Wampanoag.

Institutes of the Christian Religion

Written by John Calvin, it contained four books which codified Protestant theology. Among these beliefs were the ultimate authority of the word of God, the depravity of man, and his belief that the Bible is the only source of Revelation.

Navigation Laws

In the 1660's England restricted the colonies; They couldn't trade with other countries. The colonies were only allowed to trade with England.

Great Migration

when more than 15,000 Puritans journeyed to Massachusetts to escape religious persecution and economic hard times

Glorious Revolution

A reference to the political events of 1688-1689, when James II abdicated his throne and was replaced by his daughter Mary and her husband, Prince William of Orange.


Protestant sect in England hoping to "purify" the Anglican church of Roman Catholic traces in practice and organization.

General Court

a Puritan representative assembly elected by the freemen; they assisted the governor; this was the early form of Puritan democracy in the 1600's

Dutch West India Company

Trading company chartered by the Dutch government to conduct its merchants' trade in the Americas and Africa. (p. 498)


People who wanted to have a separate, or different church. Also known as Pilgrims.

Bible Commonwealth

name for the Massachusetts Bay colony that refers to its tax supported churches and visible saints.

Quakers (Religious Society of Friends)

English dissenters who broke from Church of England, preach a doctrine of pacification, inner divinity, and social equity, under William Penn they founded Pennsylvania


the ship in which the Pilgrim Fathers sailed from England to Massachusetts in 1620

Protestant ethic

belief stressing hard work and self-discipline

Mayflower Compact

The first agreement for self-government in America. It was signed by the 41 men on the Mayflower and set up a government for the Plymouth colony.

Fundamental Orders

document which established a regime democratically controlled by the substantial citizens of Hartford

French Huguenots

French protestants who came to the New World to escape religious prosecution in France

Scottish Presbyterians

one group of Puritan American settlers who were Calvinists

Church of England

Protestant church led by the king of England, independent of Catholic Church; tended toward Catholicism during reign of Catholic royalty


the traits and culture of the Dutch being imprinted into the young minds of the English Separatists

Plymouth Bay

Place where pilgrims finally settled

Congregational Church

A church grown out of the Puritan church, was established in all New England colonies but Rhode Island. It was based on the belief that individual churches should govern themselves

Pequot War

The Bay colonists wanted to claim Connecticut for themselves but it belonged to the Pequot. The colonists burned down their village and 400 were killed.

Dutch "golden age"

spanning across seventeenth century. religious toleration led to a stronger economy. dutch east and west India companies dominated over-seas trading. ruled by a confederation.

New Netherland

A colony founded by the Dutch in the New World. It became New York.

New Amsterdam

Dutch colony, present day New York City

New Sweden

Swedish fur-trading community established with the assistance of the Dutch on the Delaware River in 1638 and absorbed by New Netherland in 1655

Penn's Woodland

the meaning of Pennsylvania

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