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141 terms

muscle, muscular system Study Guide

____ are straplike muscles of uniform width whose fascicles all run in the same direction.
parallel muscles
A/An ____ muscle of the hand has both its orgin and insertion with in the hand.
A smile is produced by contraction of the ____ muscle(s)
the ____ muscles pull the skin of the chin upwars
All of the following are intrinsic muscles of the head except
the sternocleidomastoid
all of the following produce chewing movements of the mandible except
the masseter
which of the following is an extensor of the neck?
semipinalis capitis
the word hallucis in the name of a muscle pertains to
the great toe
the deepest muscle of the abdominal wall is the
transversus abdominis
all of the following belong to the triceps surae of the calf except
the tibialis posterior muscle
which of these muscles helps to open the mouth (depress the mandible)
the ____ acts synergistically with the masseter to elevate the mandible
zygomaticus major
the ____ originates on the zygomatic arch and inserts on the angle of the mandible.
which of the follow muscles is not below the knee?
psoas major
the prominent tendons you can palpate at the popliteal fossa arise from
the hamstring muscles
crossing your legs while sitting employs mainly
the sartorius
the longest muscles of the human body is
the satorius
The calcaneal (achilles) tendons arises from
the gastrocnemius and soleus
Which of the following muscles does not insert on the tibia or fibula?
tibialis anterior
Which of the following is not a muscles of the buttocks?
vastus intermedius
You have just played a stunning violin concerto, the audience is wild with applause, and you take a deep bow, using your
iliopsoas muscles
Which of the following flexes the thigh?
rectus femoris
The quadriceps femoris includes all the following muscles parts except
the vatus femoris
The ___ is one of the hamstring muscles on the posterior side of the thigh
Which of the following msucles produces plantar flexion of the foot?
Which of the following muscles is bipennate?
the rectus femoris
In skeletal muscles, groups of muscles cells are called___ and are surrounded by a connective tissue sheath call the ____.
fascicles; perimysium
The biceps brachii is connected to the scapula by collagenous fibers of the epimysium called the _____, and this attachment represents the ____ of the biceps brachii.
the rectus abdominis is a(n) ____ muscle, while the rectus femoris is a(n)____ muscle.
parallel; bipennate
Which of the following muscles are not part of the rotator cuff?
teres major
Lumborum mean ____, while brachii means____.
of the lower back; of the arm
The frontalis muscle is connected to the occiptalis muscles by a(n)
The muscles of the cheek, which function in blowing, sucking, and chewing are called the _____ muscles.
The principle flexors of the neck are the
sterncleidomastoid and scalenus
The muscular dome between the abdominal and thoracic cavity is the
Which of the following muscles flexes the vertebral column>
rectus abdominis
your hamstring muscles, gluteus maximus, and erector spinae are contracting in the sequence listed. You are most likely
Straightening up after touching your toes
the muscle that laterally roate and depress the scapula, as in shrugging and lowering the shoulders, are the
trapezius and serratus anterior
The four rotator cuff muslces are examples of
The principle flexors of the forearm are the
biceps brachii and coracobrachialis
On the posterior side of the hand you can notice four tendon sheaths around four tendons attaching to all of your digits except the tumb. These tendons all come from the same muscles called the
extensor digitorum
This large muscles originates on the ilium and sacrum, inserts on the distal femur and its actions is to extend the thigh
gluteus maximus
If the calcaneal (Achilles) tendon was cut, which muscles action would be afftected the most?
leg extension
Which of the following is/are voluntary muscle?
skeletal muscle
The series elastic componentes of a muscle include all of the following except
the myofilaments
the triads of a muscle fiber consist of
two terminal cisternae and a T tubule
Each end of a sarcomere is marked by a
a Z disc
synaptic vesicles are found in
the synaptic knob
The brigh red color of skeletal muscles is due mainly to its
During the time that a muscle is shortening but maintaining constant tension, it is undergoing
isotonic contraction
the region of a sarcomere where actin and myosin overlap is
The A band
When there is not enough oxygen to create ATP by aerobic respiration,a muscle fiber can prodice ATP by borrowing phosphate groups from
creatine phosphate
Red slow-twich mmuscle fibers get their name from the fact theat they contain more ____ and les ___ than whit fast-twich fibers.
myoglobin; glycogen
Which of these processes ocurs during the contraction of skeletal muscle?
Z discs move closer together
oxygen debt is the amount of extra oxygen needed after an exercise to do all of the following except
lower the metabolic rate to a resting level
Creatine kinase
catalyzes the transfer of phosphate from CP to ADP
In contrast to skeletal muscle, smooth muscle has all of the following properties except
a more extensive sarcoplasmic
The role of calmodulin in smooth muscles is
to bind calcium ions
Muscles contraction and relaxation require ATP for all of the following steps excepts
release of Ca2+ into the sarcolemma
In constrast to red muscle fibers, white fibers
have more capillaries
When a muscles develops increased ension, but does not change in length, it is said to exhibit
isometric contraction
The loss of muscles mass from disuse is called
Posture is maintained mainly by _____ fibers because the fatigue____.
slow twitch; slowly
Endurance training favors all of the following changes in the skeletal muscles except
less reliance on fat as an energy source
A motor unit is
one nerve fiber and all the muscle fibers innervated by it
In smooth muscle, the calcium needed for contraction comes mainly from
the extracellular fluid
if a poison inhibits the activity of acetylcholinesterase, a muscle
may be unable to relax
The strength of a muscle depends on all of the following factors except
the length of its sarcomeres
When smooth muscles exhibits dual innervation, it
is supplied by both sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve fibers
the fibrous tissue that surrounds each muscle cell or fiber is called ____ and its function is to
endomysium; insulate adjacent muscle cells from one another
The outer membrane around the muscle cell or fiber is called the ____, while the tunnel-like infoldings of the outer membrane form part of the triad called the ____.
sarcolemma; transverse tubules
The sarcoplasmic reiculum stores ____ ions and forms dilated sacs alongside transverse (T) tubules called the____.
calcium; terminal cisternae
In skeletal muscle fibers, Ca2+ bind to
In skeletal muscles, the light nacnds are called ____ and they contain
I bands; actin
the distance from one Z disc to the next is called the ___ and it ___ during contraction.
sarcomere, shortens
At the neuromuscular junction, ACh release into the synaptic cleft is rapidly destroyed by
The resting potential across the sarcolemma of a skeletal muscles cells is about____ millivolts (mV).
In an action potential, the ____ voltage regulated gates open first followed by the ____ voltage regulated gates opening.
sodium; potassium
in a resting muscle, most of the ATP generated by aerobic respiration comes from
fatty acids
the movement of your fingers is controlled by muscles shich have a greated proportion
fast glycolytic finers with small motor units
You prefer white meat to red meat in your turkey dinner. Which of the following characteristics would not correctly describe the fibers in the white meat?
aerobic respiration
Drugs called calcium channel blockes may be used to lower blood pressure by causeing arteries to vasodilate. These drugs
prevent calcium from entering smooth muscle and causes the muscle to relax
Lifting a box off the floor unto a table is called a ___ contraction of your biceps brachii while lowering the box onto the floor is called a ____ conraction of your biceps brachii
concentric; eccentric
Which of the following supports the sliding filament theory of muscle contraction?
The distance between Z lines decreases during contraction
Connective tissue layer surrounding an individual muscle
connective tissue that surrounds fascicle
bundles of muscle fibers wrapped in perimysium
fine sheath of connective tissue composed of reticular fibers surrounding each muscle fiber
motor unit
A motor neuron and all the all the skeletal muscle cells it innervates. Large motor units are typically found in large muscles (e.g., the thighs and buttocks) and produce fross movements. Small motor untis are found in smaller muscles (e.g. the rectus muscles that controle movements of the eyeball, the fingers) and produce more precise movements.
muscle groups that aid movement of prime mover muscles and prevent unwanted movement across intermediate joints.
Muscle that immobilizes one or more bones, allowing other muscles to act from a stable base.
muscle that opposes the prime mover
the level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse.
the stimulation of additional motor units in the muscles
maximum contraction
The stimulation of all motor units in the muscle, continuous stimulation until all motor units are recruited; therefore all muscle fibers contract
an extensible membrane enclosing the contractile substance of a muscle fiber
the cytoplasm of a striated muscle fiber
the structure within the muscle fibers that shorten to cause skeletal muscle fiber contraction.
-Thick (myosin) filament
-Thin (actin tropomyosin, and troponin) filament
the basic contractile unit of striated muscle; the segment of a myofibril between two adjacent z-lines
A band
The band of the sarcomere that extends the full length of the thick filament. The A band includes regions of thick and thin filament overlap, as well as a region of thick filament only. A bands alternate with I bands to give skeletal and cardiac muscle a striated apperance. The A band does not shorten during muscle contraction; anisotropic
I band
The region of the sarcomere made up only of thin filaments. The I band is bisected by a Z line. I bands alternate with A bands to give skeletal and cardiac muscle a striated appearance. I bands get shorter (and may disappear completely) during muscle contraction.
H zone
The region at the center of an A band of a sarcomere that is made up of myosin only. The H zone gets shorter (and may disappear) during muscle contraction; lighter region in each dark A Bands midsection; each is bisected vertically by dark line called M Line
M line
region in center of H zone that contains proteins that hold thick filaments together at center of sarcomere
Z line
A dark thin protein band to which actin filaments are attached in a striated muscle fiber, marking the boundaries between adjacent sarcomeres.
sarcoplasmic reticulum
stores and releases calcium into sarcoplasm after nervous stimulation
terminal cisternae
enlarged areas of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) surrounding the transverse tubules, which store calcium for release at the start of muscle contraction; makes up the triad
transverse (T) tubules
narrow tubes that are continuous with the sarcolemma and extend into the sarcoplasm at right angles to the cell surface; filled with extracellular fluid; form passage way through the muscle fiber; makes up the triad
a band of fibrous tissue that connects muscle to bone
Muscles of facial expression
epicranius (occipitofrontalis)
orbicularis oculi
orbicularis oris
zygomaticus major
zygomaticus min
Muscles of mastication
lateral pterygoid
medial pterygoid
Muscles that move head and neck
trapezius (superior part)
scalenes (anterior, middle, and posterior)
splenius capitis
semispinalis capitis
Muscles that move hyoid bone and larynx
suprahyoid muscles
-digastric (anterior, posterior belly)
infrahyoid muscles
-omohyoid (superior, inferior belly)
occipitofrontalis-frontal belly
Scalp muscles
Orgin: eipcranial aponeurosis
insertion: skin superior to supraorbital margin
Action: draws scalp anteriorly; raises eyebrows and wrinkles skin of forehead horizontally
occupital belly- back of the head
Scalp muscles
Orgin: occipital bone and mastoid process of temporal bone
Insertion: epicarnial aponeurosis
Action: draws scalp posteriorly
oribcularis oris
mouth muscle
Orgin: muscle fibers surrounding opeing of mouth
Insertion: skin at the corners of mouth
Actioncloses and protides lips; compresses lips against teeth, and shapes lips during speech
zygomatius major
mouth muscle
Orgin: zygomatic bone
Insertion: skin at the angle of mouth and orbicularis oris
:Action: draws angle of mouth superiorly and laterally, as in smiling or laughing
zygomatius minor
mouth muscle
Orgin: zygomatic bone
Insertion:upper lip
Action: rasies upper lip, exposing maxillary teeth
depressor labil superioris
Mouth Muscle
Orgin: superior to infraorbital foramen of maxilla
Insertion:skin at the angle of mouth and orbicularis oris
Action: rasies upper lip
depressor labil inferiors
mouth muscle
Orgin: mandible
Insertion: skin or lower lip
Action: depresses (lowers) lower lip
sepressor anguil oris
mouth muscles
Orgin: Mandible
Insertion: angle of mouth
Action: drws of mouth laterally and inferiorly as in opening mouth
mouth muscles
Orgin: aveolar processes of maxilla and mandible and pterygomandibular rapehe Insertion: orbicularis oris
Action:presses checks against teeth and lips for whistling, blowing, and sucking; and assists in mastication (chewing) by keeping food bewteen the teeth and not between teeth and cheeks
mouth muscles
Orgin: fascia over parotis salivary gland
Insertion: skin at angle of mouth
Action: draws angle of mouth laterally as in tenseness
mouth muscle:
Orgin: Mandible
Insertion: skin of Chin
Action Elevates and prtrudes lower lip and pulls skin of chin up, as in pouting
Neck Muscle
Orgin: fascia over deltoid and pectoralis major muscles
Insertion: mandible, muscles around angle of mouth, and skin of lower face
Action: draws outer part of lower lip inferiorly and posterior as in pouting; depresses mandible
orbicularis oculi
Orbit and eyebrow muscle
Orgin: medial wall of orbit
Insertion: circular path around orbit
Action: closes eye
corrugator supercilli
Orbit and eyebrow muscle
Orgin: medial end of supercillary arch of frontal bone
Insertion: skin of the eyebrow
Action:draws eyebrow inferiorly and winkles skin of forehead vertically as in frowning
Levator palpebrae superioris
Orbit and eyebrow muscle
Orgin:roof of orbit (lesser wing of sphenoid bone)
Insertion: skin of upper eyelid
Action: elevates upper eyelid (opens eye)
Superior rectus
Muscles of the Eye
Orgin: common tendinous ring (attached to orbit around optic foramen)
Insertion: superior and central part of eyeball
Action: moves eyeball superiorly (elevation) and medially (adduction) and rotates it laterally
inferior retus
Muscles of the Eye
Orgin: common tendinous ring (attached to orbit around optic foramen)
Insertion: inferior and central part of the eye
Action: moves eyeball inferiorly (depression) and medially (adduction) and rotates it laterally
Lateral rectus
Muscles of the Eye
Orgin: common tendinous ring (attached to orbit around optic foramen)
Insertion: lateral side of eyeball
Action: moves eyeball laterally
Medial recrus
Muscles of the Eye
Orgin: common tendinous ring (attached to orbit around optic foramen)
Insertion: medial sides of eyeball
Action: moves eyeball medially
superior oblique
Muscles of the Eye
Orgin: Sphenoid bone, superior and medail to the tendinous ring in the orbit
Insertion: eyeball between superior and lateral recti. The muscles inserts into the superior and lateral surfaces of the eyeball via a tendon that passes through the trochlea
Action: moves eyeball inferiorly (depression) and laterally (abduction), and rotates it
Inferior oblique oblique
Muscles of the Eye
Orgin: maxilla in floor of orbit
Insertion: eyeball between inferior and later recti
Action: moves eyeball superiorly (elevation) and laterally (abduction) and rotates it laterally
Muscles that move Mandible
Orgin: maxilla and zygomatic arch
Insertion: angle and ramus of mandible
Action: elevates mandible, as in closing mouth, and retracts (draws back) mandible
Muscles that move Mandible
Orgin: temporal bone
Insertion: coronoid prcess and ramus of mandible
Action: elevates and retracts mandible
Medial Pterygoyd
Muscles that move Mandible
Orgin: medial surface of lateral portion of pterygoid process of sphenoid bone; maxilla
Insertion: angle and ramus of mandible
Action: elevates and protracts (portudes) mandible and moves mandible from side to side
Lateral pterygoid
Muscles that move Mandible
Orgin: greater wing and lateral surface of lateral portion of pterygoid process of sphenoid bone
Insertion: condyle of mandible; tempro-mandibular joint
Action: protracts and depresses mandible and moves mandible from side to side
Muscles that move the tongue
Orgin: mandible
Insertion: undersurface of tongue and hyoid
Action: depresses tongue and thrust it anteriorly
Muscles that move the tongue
Orgin: styloid process of temporal bone
Insertion: side and undersurface of tongue
Action: Elevates tongue and draws it posteriorly (retraction)
Muscles that move the tongue
Orgin: anterior surface of soft palate
Insertion: side of tongue
Action: elvates posterior portion of tongue and draws soft palate down on tongue
Muscles that move the tongue
Orgin: greater horn and body of hyoid bone
Insertion: side of tongue
Action: depresses tongue and draws down its sides