20 terms

Chapter 23 Structure and Function of State Governments

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initiative
Procedure whereby a certain number of voters may, by petition, propose a law or constitutional amendment and have it submitted to the voters
constitutional convention
The meeting of state delegates in 1787 in Philadelphia called to revise the Articles of Confederation. It instead designed a new plan of government, the US Constitution.
state constitution
the document that describes the basic policies, procedures, and institutions of the gov't of a specific state, much as the U.S. Constitution does for the federal government
lieutenant governor
an elected official serving as deputy to the governor of a state of the United States
plurality
(in an election with more than 2 options) the number of votes for the candidate or party receiving the greatest number (but less that half of the votes)
civil case
a case that involves a disagreement between two or more persons or organizations and where there is no crime involved
criminal case
one in which court action is brought by the government against a person or groups of people accused of committing a crime, resulting in a fine or imprisonment if found guilty.
National Guard
United States military reserves recruited by the states and equipped by the federal government
attorney general
the position of the head of the Justice Department and the chief law enforcement officer of the United States..., the chief law officer of a country or state...., the person who holds the position of secretary of the Justice Department
secretary of state
the position of the head of the State Department..., a government minister for foreign relations."., the person who holds the secretaryship of the Department of State
Missouri Plan
A method of selecting judges that combines appointment and election. Under the plan, the state governor or another government official selects judges from a group of nominees chosen by a nonpartisan committee. After a year on the bench, the judges face a popular election to determine whether the public wishes to keep them in office.
public utility
A business that supplies a service or product vital to all people; the price charged for the service (or product) is determined by government regulation rather than by competition.
conservation
the preservation and careful management of the environment and of natural resources
extradition
Process by which governments return fugitives to the jurisdiction from which they have fled.
parole
(law) a conditional release from imprisonment that entitiles the person to serve the remainder of the sentence outside the prison as long as the terms of release are complied with
excise tax
a tax that is measured by the amount of business done (not on property or income from real estate)
regressive tax
A tax in which the burden falls relatively more heavily on low-income groups than on wealthy taxpayers. The opposite of a progressive tax, in which tax rates increase as income increases.
progressive tax
any tax in which the rate increases as the amount subject to taxation increases
bond
(criminal law) money that must be forfeited by the bondsman if an accused person fails to appear in court for trial
grant
the act of providing a subsidy