Language 1 L1
Terms are used to indicate that a person has acquired the language in infancy and early childhooh & generally within the family. Level of Proficiency in language.
Language 2 L2
non-native language, 2nd language) implies the prior aailability to the individual of an L1, some form of biligualism. May indicate a lower level of proficiency.
the appropriate use of language; rules for communicating effectively and responding to the needs of one's listeners.
means that students should be able to understand the essence of what is being said to them
Is a mental barrier put up the ELL student when put in high stress or anxiety or embrassess
5 Stages of ESL Development
1. Preproduction, 2. Early production, 3. Speech emergent, 4. Intermediate fluency, 5. Advance proficiency
ESL Fundatmental Language Concepts
1. Increase compreshensibility, 2. Encourage Interations, 3. Thinking & Study Skills, 4. Use of Native language to increase comprehension
must include initiating frequent interaction with English-specaking peers and materials for L1 & L2
is an instruction in English understandable to ESL students. Use physical activities, visual aids
refers to an instructional activity that takes place in the form of a dialogue between teachers and students regarding the segment of the text. Structure by 4 strategies: summarizing, question generating, clarifying, and predicting
Content based ESL Instruction
applies knowledge of effective practices, resources, and materials for providing engaging students in critical thinking
Basic Interpersonal Communicatin Skills; language skills needed in social situations, day to day lang., playground, lunchroom, school bus, parties, etc; not very cognitively demanding
Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency; refers to formal academic learning; reading, listening, speaking, writing about subject area content; cognitively demanding
Pre-teaching vocabulary, apply familiar concepts from their cultural backgrounds, apply prior experiences to new learning strategies, use hands-on strategies, Use realia-media- and other visual supports
evalutate student achievement for accountability and is measured after students have ample time to demonstrate mastery of intended objectives
is oral and done in all lessons to determine developmentally appropriate instruction
English Language Learners Program
1. Transitional Bilingual, 2. Developmental Bilingual, 3. Two-Way Immersion, 4. Support Role
half the class will be Native Language only and the other half of class will know both N.L. and English
In content classes using English with the help of a paraprofessional ESL teacher helping the content teacher with that ESL student
ESL General Reading Skills
Phonological awareness, Phonemic awareness, sight words that are high-frequency words
Ability to identify individual sounds, or phonemes, in a language, is the development of this awareness
Types of Standardized Test for ESL
Oral Lang. Prof. Test, Norm-Referenced Academic Achievemnet Test, TPRI/Tejas LEE, RPTE, TOP, TAKS
Texas Primary Reading Inventory; allows a teacher to quickly gather information about the development of the student's reading concepts;engages the student with inviting tasks and entertaining stories, while giving the teacher an opportunity to gather more data to help match reading instruction with specific student needs
The Tejas LEE was developed to address areas important to the development of Spanish reading and comprehension
Norm-REferenced Academic Achievement test
Norm-referenced tests (NRTs) compare a person's score against the scores of a group of people who have already taken the same exam, called the "norming group.
Linguistically Accommodated Testing (LAT)
Alternative mathematics assessment process for English Language Learners (ELLs) who are LEP-exempt from regular TAKS mathematics tests in Grades 3-8 and 10. LAT results are used in the Adequate Yearly Progress Accountability (AYP) system required by NCLB
Lau vs. Nichols 1974
was a civil rights case that was brought by Chinese American students living in San Francisco, California who had limited English proficiency. The students claimed that they were not receiving special help in school due to their inability to speak English, help which they argued they were entitled to under Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 because of its ban on educational discrimination on the basis of national origin.
Castaneda vs Pickard 1981
This case was filed against the Raymondville Independent School District (RISD) in Texas by Roy Castañeda, the father of two Mexican-American children. Mr. Castañeda claimed that the RISD was discriminating against his children because of their ethnicity. He argued that the classroom his children were being taught in was segregated, using a grouping system for classrooms based on criteria that were both ethnically and racially discriminating.
Krashen's 5 hypotheses
Natural Order Hypothesis, Acquisition/ Learning Hypothesis, Monitor Hypothesis, Input Hypothesis, & Affective Filter Hypothesis
Acquisition/ Learning Hypothesis
'adults have two distinctive ways of developing competences in second languages .. acquisition, that is by using language for real communication ... learning .. "knowing about" language'
'humans acquire language in only one way - by understanding messages or by receiving "comprehensible input"'
Affective Filter Hypothesis
'a mental block, caused by affective factors ... that prevents input from reaching the language acquisition device'
Common Difficulites in a 2nd Language
Negative Transfer (interference)- transfering rules, pronuciation; Idioms; shades of meaning in words or connotations of words
ESL Teaching Methods
Language Scaffolding (Ovando), TPR Total Physical Response, LEA Learning Experience Response, Cooperative Learning, Content-Based Learning
"Scaffolding refers to providing contextual supports for meaning through the use of simplified language, teacher modeling, visuals and graphics, cooperative learning and hands-on learning" (Ovando, Collier, & Combs, 2003, p. 345).
Three types of scaffolding
1. Simplifying the language: The teacher can simplify the language by shortening selections, speaking in the present tense, and avoiding the use of idioms.
2. Asking for completion, not generation: The teacher can have students choose answers from a list or complete a partially finished outline or paragraph.
3. Using visuals: The teacher can present information and ask for students to respond through the use of graphic organizers, tables, charts, outlines, and graphs.
When the goal is to prepare students for academic success in classes taught in English, then ESL is best taught through lessons that teach meaningful mathematics, science, social studies, and language arts concepts simultaneously with second language objectives" (Ovando, Collier, & Combs, 2003, p. 310). Theme studies provide a meaningful context for learning technical, academic vocabulary