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English as a Second language

Language 1 L1

Terms are used to indicate that a person has acquired the language in infancy and early childhooh & generally within the family. Level of Proficiency in language.

Language 2 L2

non-native language, 2nd language) implies the prior aailability to the individual of an L1, some form of biligualism. May indicate a lower level of proficiency.


producing the basic sound units of language


word formation in a language including inflection, derivation and compunding


the way in which words are put together to form phrases, clause, or sentences


relating to menaing in language


the appropriate use of language; rules for communicating effectively and responding to the needs of one's listeners.

comprehensible input

means that students should be able to understand the essence of what is being said to them

affective filter

Is a mental barrier put up the ELL student when put in high stress or anxiety or embrassess


total physical repsonse; say a single action word then perform that action

5 Stages of ESL Development

1. Preproduction, 2. Early production, 3. Speech emergent, 4. Intermediate fluency, 5. Advance proficiency


silent/receptive, 500 words or less; use of pictures, gestures, pointing; 6months

Early Production

1000 words, one & two word phrases; 6months

Speech Emergent

7000 words,use short sentences and ask simple questions, 1yr

Intermediate Fluency

12,000 words, make complex statements, 1yr or more

Advanced Proficiency

17,000 words, participating fully in discussions, 5-7yrs

Cognitive Processes

memorization, categorization, generalization, & metacognition

Bloom's Taxonomy

Knowledge > Comprehension > Application > Analysis > Synthesis > Evaluation


word that have a common etymological origion


Don't use them; "start from scratch" "when the cat is away, the mouse will play"

ESL Fundatmental Language Concepts

1. Increase compreshensibility, 2. Encourage Interations, 3. Thinking & Study Skills, 4. Use of Native language to increase comprehension

ESL Teaching methods

Lingusitic Instruction, Sheltered English, Reciprocal Teaching

Lingusitic Instruction

must include initiating frequent interaction with English-specaking peers and materials for L1 & L2

Sheltered English

is an instruction in English understandable to ESL students. Use physical activities, visual aids

Reciprocal Teaching

refers to an instructional activity that takes place in the form of a dialogue between teachers and students regarding the segment of the text. Structure by 4 strategies: summarizing, question generating, clarifying, and predicting

Content based ESL Instruction

applies knowledge of effective practices, resources, and materials for providing engaging students in critical thinking

ESL Interrelatedness

Listening, Speaking, Reading, & Writing is learn concurrently


Basic Interpersonal Communicatin Skills; language skills needed in social situations, day to day lang., playground, lunchroom, school bus, parties, etc; not very cognitively demanding


Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency; refers to formal academic learning; reading, listening, speaking, writing about subject area content; cognitively demanding


Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol


Language Proficience Assessment Committe


Higher order thinking, engaging students in critical thinking


CALP, cognitive academic language proficiency


Multiple opportunities to learn, multiple intelligences

Instructional Delivery

Pre-teaching vocabulary, apply familiar concepts from their cultural backgrounds, apply prior experiences to new learning strategies, use hands-on strategies, Use realia-media- and other visual supports

Formal Assessment

evalutate student achievement for accountability and is measured after students have ample time to demonstrate mastery of intended objectives

Informal Assessment

is oral and done in all lessons to determine developmentally appropriate instruction

Assessment Record-Keeping Methods

Anecdontal record, observational checklist, & rating scale

English Language Learners Program

1. Transitional Bilingual, 2. Developmental Bilingual, 3. Two-Way Immersion, 4. Support Role

Transitional Bilingual

Native Language in core academic phase and slowly integrate English

Developmental Bilingual

Native Language in core academic phase and will apply when needed

Two-Way Immersion

half the class will be Native Language only and the other half of class will know both N.L. and English

Support Role

In content classes using English with the help of a paraprofessional ESL teacher helping the content teacher with that ESL student


language experience approach

ESL General Reading Skills

Phonological awareness, Phonemic awareness, sight words that are high-frequency words


Pertaining to a speaker's knowledge about sound patterns in a language.


Ability to identify individual sounds, or phonemes, in a language, is the development of this awareness

Types of Standardized Test for ESL

Oral Lang. Prof. Test, Norm-Referenced Academic Achievemnet Test, TPRI/Tejas LEE, RPTE, TOP, TAKS


Texas Primary Reading Inventory; allows a teacher to quickly gather information about the development of the student's reading concepts;engages the student with inviting tasks and entertaining stories, while giving the teacher an opportunity to gather more data to help match reading instruction with specific student needs

Tejas LEE

The Tejas LEE was developed to address areas important to the development of Spanish reading and comprehension

Norm-REferenced Academic Achievement test

Norm-referenced tests (NRTs) compare a person's score against the scores of a group of people who have already taken the same exam, called the "norming group.


Reading Proficiency Tests in English, grade 3-12

Linguistically Accommodated Testing (LAT)

Alternative mathematics assessment process for English Language Learners (ELLs) who are LEP-exempt from regular TAKS mathematics tests in Grades 3-8 and 10. LAT results are used in the Adequate Yearly Progress Accountability (AYP) system required by NCLB

Lau vs. Nichols 1974

was a civil rights case that was brought by Chinese American students living in San Francisco, California who had limited English proficiency. The students claimed that they were not receiving special help in school due to their inability to speak English, help which they argued they were entitled to under Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 because of its ban on educational discrimination on the basis of national origin.

Castaneda vs Pickard 1981

This case was filed against the Raymondville Independent School District (RISD) in Texas by Roy Castañeda, the father of two Mexican-American children. Mr. Castañeda claimed that the RISD was discriminating against his children because of their ethnicity. He argued that the classroom his children were being taught in was segregated, using a grouping system for classrooms based on criteria that were both ethnically and racially discriminating.

Domain 1

Language Concepts & Language Acquisition

Domain 2

ESL Instruction & Assessment

Domain 3

Foundation of ESL, Cultural Awareness, & Family-Community Involvement

Krashen's 5 hypotheses

Natural Order Hypothesis, Acquisition/ Learning Hypothesis, Monitor Hypothesis, Input Hypothesis, & Affective Filter Hypothesis

Natural Order Hypothesis

'we acquire the rules of language in a predictable order'

Acquisition/ Learning Hypothesis

'adults have two distinctive ways of developing competences in second languages .. acquisition, that is by using language for real communication ... learning .. "knowing about" language'

Monitor Hypothesis

'conscious learning ... can only be used as a Monitor or an editor'

Input Hypothesis

'humans acquire language in only one way - by understanding messages or by receiving "comprehensible input"'

Affective Filter Hypothesis

'a mental block, caused by affective factors ... that prevents input from reaching the language acquisition device'

Common Difficulites in a 2nd Language

Negative Transfer (interference)- transfering rules, pronuciation; Idioms; shades of meaning in words or connotations of words

ESL Teaching Methods

Language Scaffolding (Ovando), TPR Total Physical Response, LEA Learning Experience Response, Cooperative Learning, Content-Based Learning

Scaffolding Learning

"Scaffolding refers to providing contextual supports for meaning through the use of simplified language, teacher modeling, visuals and graphics, cooperative learning and hands-on learning" (Ovando, Collier, & Combs, 2003, p. 345).

Three types of scaffolding

1. Simplifying the language: The teacher can simplify the language by shortening selections, speaking in the present tense, and avoiding the use of idioms.
2. Asking for completion, not generation: The teacher can have students choose answers from a list or complete a partially finished outline or paragraph.
3. Using visuals: The teacher can present information and ask for students to respond through the use of graphic organizers, tables, charts, outlines, and graphs.

thematic instruction

When the goal is to prepare students for academic success in classes taught in English, then ESL is best taught through lessons that teach meaningful mathematics, science, social studies, and language arts concepts simultaneously with second language objectives" (Ovando, Collier, & Combs, 2003, p. 310). Theme studies provide a meaningful context for learning technical, academic vocabulary

Cooperative Learing

is a successful teaching strategy in which small teams, each with students of different levels of ability, use a variety of learning activities to improve their understanding of a subject.

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