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71 terms

Marine Biology

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Verbrata
Fish, sharks and marine mammals are all members of this subphylum of the Kingdom Animalia.
Sponge
Most primitive marine animal.
Phytoplankton
These are primary producers.
Diatoms
These organisms contain fatty acids and oil to help with buoyancy.
Dinoflagellates
These have two flagella to help propel them through the water.
Phycology
The study of seaweeds
Benthic
Fish and invertebrates that live on the bottom of the ocean are known as this.
Pelagic
Fish and other organisms that live in the water column are known as this.
Accessory Pigments
These allow phytoplankton and seaweeds to live deeper in the ocean where light is very reduced.
Planktos
This is a Greek word meaning 'wandering'
Silica
In diatoms, the frustule is made of __________.
Compensation
The __________ depth is the depth at which the production and consumption of oxygen by autotrophs is equal.
Zooplankton
These are the most abundant primary consumers.
Vascular
Macroalgae or seaweeds lack __________ tissue. They are thin to allow for diffuse of gases and because of the marine environment not a risk of drying out.
Mucilaginous
This material on seaweeds provides additional protection from drying out when the tide goes out.
Thalus
The body of the seaweed.
Stipes
The stem of seaweed.
Phaeophyta
Class of brown algae which includes kelp and rockweed.
Rhodophyta
This class of seaweed includes irish moss and norri.
Chlorophyta
Green algae
Gills
Aquatic arthropods exchange gases through ______________.
Radial
___________ symmetry is found in all adult echinoderms.
Lancelet
An animal that retains its chordate features throughout life is the _______________.
Osteichthyes
Bony fish belong to the class _______________.
Chondrichthyes
Sharks and rays belong to the class _______________.
Agnatha
This class includes jawless fishes such as lamprey.
Filter feeding
Sponges obtain nutrition through _____________.
Crustacea
This class includes crabs, lobsters and shrimp.
Mantle
This structure secretes the shell in bivalves.
Exoskeleton
This provides protection for arthropods.
Medusa
This form of cnidarian that has a body form like an umbrella with tentacles hanging down.
Hermaphroditic
This type of organism, like the sponge, can produce both eggs and sperm.
Regeneration
Another term for replacement or regrowth of parts in echinoderms is _____________.
Fins
Used for balance, steering and swimming in fishes.
Spawning
Breeding in fishes
Cartilage
The skeleton of sharks and lampreys is made of this.
Internal Sharks
have this type of fertilization.
Swim Bladder
This structure in fish, through altering the gas pressure, allows fish to adjust depth in the water.
Lateral Line
This adaptation in fishes allows detection movement and vibrations in the water.
Gastropods
Snails are members of this class of arthropods.
Phytoplankton
small photosynthetic organisms that form the base of ocean food web
producers
photosynthetic organism like phytoplankton
diatoms
microscopic phytoplankton that have a silicate cell wall - most abundant photosynthetic organism in ocean
photic zone
depth of ocean with sufficient sunlight for photosynthesis to occur
Benthic
means found on the bottom
planktonic
means these organisms are free-floating
Dinoflagellates
second most abundant primary producer in the ocean
Flagella
whip-like structures that help dinoflagellates move
Red Tide
large blooms of dinoflagellates with harmful effects on marine life
Adaptations enabling phytoplankton to float
large cavity in center, spines, store oils and fat
Upwelling
brings cool nutrient water to the surface that aids in phytoplankton growth
cellulose
material that makes up the cell walls of the dinoflagellates
silica
material that makes up the cell walls of diatoms
dead zone
an area of water with very low oxygen levels
autotrophic
a self-feeding organism; conducts photosynthesis
heterotrophic
an organism that eats or absorbs organic material to feed
plankton net
made of silky material with pores; is used to take water samples and to find phytoplankton
salinity
a determinant of species composition of phytoplankton communities; measured in PPT
PPT
parts per thousand; measures salinity
saltwater
between salt- and freshwater, this one is more dense
photic zone
area of the water where there is the highest amount of light
flagellae
all dinoflagellates have these for movability
net plankton
types of plankton that are larger than 10 microns
nanoplankton
types of plankton that are smaller than 10 microns
net plankton
size of plankton that comprise most of the biomass
diatom
type of plankton that is not motile
oil
where diatoms store their energy
light-dark bottle
method to measure gross primary productivity using two bottles
light
the bottle that measures net primary production in the light-dark bottle method
dark
bottle that measures respiration in the light-dark bottle method
gross primary production
all the respiration and photosynthesis in an ecosystem; found by adding the light and dark bottles in the light-dark bottle method