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APES Ch. 9 Chapter Review, Data Analysis, Critical Thinking
Terms in this set (20)
1. What economic and ecological roles do honeybees play? What is pollination? How are human activities contributing to the decline of many populations of European honeybees, and why should we care? What is colony collapse disorder (CCD)?
Honeybees play a key role in providing us with one of nature's most important ecosystem services: pollination, the transfer of pollen within and among flowering plants that enables them to produce seeds and fruit. Some producers believe we need this industrialized pollination system in order to grow enough food. Others see such heavy dependence on a single bee species as a potentially dangerous violation of the earth's biodiversity principle of sustainability. They argue that this dependence will put food supplies at risk if the European honeybees decline.
2. What is the key concept for this section? What is biological extinction? Explain what a trophic cascade is and give an example. What is a mass extinction? What is the background extinction rate, and how do estimated current and projected extinction rates compare with it? What percentage of the earth's land and what percentage of the earth's oceans have been disturbed by human activities? Explain how scientists estimate extinction rates and describe three problems they face. Give three reasons why many extinction experts believe that projected extinction rates are probably on the low side. What percentage of the world's species are likely to go extinct, largely as a result of human activities, during this century? Distinguish between endangered species and threatened species and give an example of each. List four characteristics that make some species especially vulnerable to extinction.
Species are becoming extinct 100 to 1000 time faster than they were before modern humans arrived on earth, and by the end of this century, the extinction rate is projected to be 10,000 times higher than that background rate. The loss of a keystone species or a major reduction in its populations can lead to population declines or extinctions of species with strong connections to such species and to a breakdown in ecosystem services that depend on those connections. Ecologists refer to such a series of changes as a trophic cascade. For example, a 2011 report by ecologist James A. Estes and his colleagues pointed out that sharp declines in the populations of top predators such as sea otters, lions tigers, wolves, and some shark species can affect populations of the species on which they feed. Such declines can also result in degradation of habitats and ecosystem services such as chemical cycling and energy flows.
3. What is the key concept for this section? What are three reasons for trying to avoid hastening the extinction of wild species? Describe two economic and two ecological benefits of species diversity. Explain how saving other species and the ecosystem services they provide can help us to save our own species and our cultures and economies.
We should avoid speeding up the extinction of wild species because of the ecosystem and economic services they provide, because it can take millions of years for nature to recover rom large-scale extinctions, and because many people believe that species have a right to exist regardless of their usefulness to us. By preserving species and their habitats, we can also gain economic benefits from wildlife tourism, or ecotourism. A second reason for preventing extinctions caused or hastened by human activities is that analysis of past mass extinctions indicates it will take 5 million to 10 million years for natural speciation to rebuild the biodiversity that is likely to be lost during this century. Third, many people believe that wild species have a right to exist, regardless of their usefulness to us.
4. What is the key concept for this section? What is HIPPCO? What is the greatest threat to wild species? What is habitat fragmentation? Describe the major effects of habitat loss an fragmentation. Why are island species especially vulnerable to extinction? What are habitat islands?
The greatest threats to species and ecosystem services are (in order) loss or degradation of habitat, harmful invasive species, human population growth, pollution, climate change, and overexploitation. Habitat destruction, degradation, and fragmentation, invasive species, population growth and increasing use of resources, pollution, climate change, and overexploitation. Habitat fragmentation can decrease tree cover in forests and block animal migration routes. It can also divide populations of a species into smaller, increasingly isolated groups that are more vulnerable to predators, competitor species, disease, and catastrophic events such as storms and fires.
5. Give two examples of the benefits that have been gained by the introduction of nonnative species. Give two examples of the harmful effects of nonnative species that have been introduced deliberately. Describe the harmful and beneficial effects of introducing the kudzu vine. Give two examples of harmful results of accidental introductions of nonnative species. List four ways to limit the harmful impacts of nonnative species. Explain why prevention is the best way to reduce threats from invasive species and list five ways to implement this strategy. Summarize the roles and climate change in the extinction of wild species. Explain how pesticides such as DDT can accumulate and be biomagnified in food chains and webs.
Many introductions of nonnative species have been beneficial to us. According to a study by ecologist David Pimentel, nonnative species such as corn, Wheat, rice, and other food corps , as well as some species of cattle, poultry, and other livestock, provide more than 98% of the U.S. food supply. Similarly, nonnative tree species are grown in about 85% of the world's tree plantations. Some deliberately introduced species have helped to control pests. And highly beneficial European honeybees were brought to North America in the 1600 s by English settlers who harvested the bees' honey and used the wax from their hives to make candles. The problem is that, in their new habitats, some introduced species do not face the natural predators, competitors, parasites, viruses, bacteria, or fungi that had helped to control their numbers in their original habitats. Such nonnative species can thus crowd out populations of many native species, disrupt ecosystem services, cause human health problems, and lead to economic losses. When this happens the nonnative species are viewed as harmful invasive species. Invasive species rarely cause the global extinction of other species, but they can cause population declines and local and regional extinctions of some native species. Many unwanted nonnative invaders arrive from other continents as stowaways on air craft, in the ballast water of tankers and cargo ships, and as hitchhikers on imported products such as wooden packing crates. Cars and trucks can also spread the seeds o f nonnative plant species embedded in their tire treads. Many tourists return home with living plants that can multiply and become invasive. Some of these plants might also contain insects that can invade new areas, multiply rapidly, and threaten crops.
6. Summarize the roles of population growth, over-consumption, pollution, and climate change in the extinction of wild species. List possible causes of the decline of European honeybee populations in the United States. Describe how human activities threaten polar bears in the Arctic. Why does poaching occur? Give three examples of species that are threatened by this illegal activity. Why are wild tigers likely to disappear within a few decades? What is the connection between infectious diseases in humans and the pet trade? Describe the threat to some forms of wildlife from the increased hunting for bush meat..
Past and projected human population growth and rising rates of resource use per person have greatly expanded the human ecological footprint. This has eliminated, degraded, and fragmented vast areas of wildlife habitat. Acting together, these two growth factors have caused the extinction of many species. Pollution also threatens some species with extinction, as has been shown by the unintended effects of certain pesticides. According to a study by Conservation International, projected climate change could help to drive a quarter to half of all land animals and plants to extinction by the end of this century. Varroa mite; harmful interactions between viruses and fungi; pesticides; stress and poor nutrition. Polar bear, tiger, poacher. The Indian, or Bengal, tiger is at risk because a coat made from its fur can sell of r as much as $100,000 in Tokyo, and tiger skins sell for up tp $35,000. Bushmeat hunting has driven at least one species to complete extinction. It is also a factor in reducing some populations of orangutans. Another problem is that the butchering and eating of some forms of bushmeat have helped to spread fatal diseases such as HIV/AIDS and the Ebola virus from animals to humans.
7. List the major threats to the world's bird populations and give two extinction. Describe environmental explorer Cagan Sekercioglu's contributions to our understanding of the ecological importance of birds and threats to their extinction.
The primary causes of these population declines appear to be habitat loss and fragmentation of the birds' breading habitats. Based on his extensive research, Sekercioglu estimates that the percentage of the world's known bird species that are endangered could nearly double from 13% in 2012 to 25% by the end of this century.
8. What is the key concept for this section? Name two international treaties that are used to help protect species. What is the U.S. Endangered Species Act? How successful has it ben, and why is it controversial?
We can reduce species extinction and sustain ecosystem services by establishing and enforcing national environmental laws and international treaties, creating protected wildlife sanctuaries, and taking precautionary measures to prevent such harm. Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species. Convention on Biological Diversity. Designed to identify and protect endangered species in the U.S. and abroad. This act is probably the most far-reaching environmental law ever adopted by any nation, which has made it controversial.
9. Summarize the roles and limitations of wildlife refuges gene banks, botanical gardens, wildlife farms, zoos, and aquariums in protecting some species.
Zoos, aquariums, game parks, and animal research centers are being used to preserve some individuals of critically endangered animal species ,with the long-term goal of reintroducing the species into protected wild habitats.
10. What are this chapter's three big ideas? How do two of the three scientific principles of sustainability apply to protecting honeybees and other wild species from extinction along with protecting the ecosystem services provided by species? What two special science principles of sustainability are involved in protecting species from extinction due to human activities?
We are hastening the extinction of wild species and degrading the ecosystem services they provide by destroying and degrading their habitats, introducing harmful invasive species, and increasing human population growth, pollution, climate change, and over exploitation. We should avoid causing the extinction of wild species because of the ecosystem and economic services they provided and because their existence should not depend primarily on their usefulness to us. We can work to prevent the extinction of species and to protect overall biodiversity and ecosystem services by using laws and treaties, protecting wildlife sanctuaries, and making greater use of the precautionary principles. In keeping with two of the three scientific principles of sustainability, acting to prevent the extinction of species as a result of human activities helps to preserve not only the earth's biodiversity, but also the vital ecosystem services that sustain us, including chemical cycling. Thus, it is not only for these species that we ought to act, but also for the long-term health and well-being of our own species in keeping with the win-win and future generations' principles of sustainability.
1. What are three aspects of your lifestyle that might directly or indirectly contribute to declines in European honeybees populations and the endangerment of other pollinator species?
Usage of pesticides, wasting energy (leading to climate change, therefore might influence other species.), and demanding too much honey?("Stress and poor nutrition from being transported long distances around the U.S. as insect workers for the industrial pollination business")
2. Give your response to the following statement: "Eventually, all species become extinct. So it does not really matter that the world's remaining tiger species or a tropical forest plant is endangered mostly because of human activities." Be honest about your reaction, and give arguments to support your position.
Having something as a result in future does not equal to having it now. There are consequences if every species just go extinct right this second. Besides, being "endangered" does not mean it is going to extinct. There are chances for the species to recover.
3. Do you accept the ethical position that each species has the inherent right to survive without human interference, regardless of whether it serves any useful purpose for humans? Explain. Would you extend this right to the Anopheles mosquito, which transmits malaria, and to infectious bacteria? Explain.
Personally speaking, I feel it is pointless to say something "has the value regardless of human infect," because the "concept" of "value" is from human culture. The truth that we are humans is undeniable, and it does not necessarily imply negative. When we are talking about it, it is more like deciding if we want to "consider" such thing has a "meaning" or "value" or something, and this does not make the object gain or loss anything in the case not related to humans.
4. Wildlife ecologist and environmental philosopher Aldo Leopold wrote this with respect to preventing the extinction of wild species: "To keep every cog and wheel is the first precaution of intelligent tinkering." Explain how this statement relates to the material in this chapter.
People need to be aware of what they are doing rather than doing things blindly. For example, when buying clothes made of wild animal fur, people should probably realize that it is not really a fashion but an act of ignorance because it is harming the environment.
5. What would you do if fire ants invaded your yard and house? Explain your reasoning behind your course of action. How might your actions affect other species or the ecosystem you are dealing with?
Firstly, find out their habitat and the source. Since it is an invasive species, it is probably not going to disappear until all of them are gone. Using pesticide could be one solution, but it would not be the best. I would probably ask for help, searching for a way to deal with it at the same time causing least harm to environment.
6. How do you think your lifestyle might contribute directly or indirectly to the extinction of some bird species? What are two things that you think should be done to reduce the rate of extinction of bird species?
Wasting energy. Maybe I can reduce the amount of electricity I use so less trees would be cut down and more habitat could be saved. Saving water is also very important.
7. Which of the following statements best describes your feelings toward wildlife?
a. As long as it stays in its space, wild life is okay.
b. As long as I do not need its space, wildlife is okay.
c. I have the right to use wildlife habitat to meet my own needs.
d. When you have seen one redwood tree, elephant, or some other form of wildlife, you have seen them all, so lock up a few of each species in a zoo or wildlife park and do not worry about protecting the rest.
e. Wildlife should be protected in its current ranges.
E is similar to my opinion. However, I do not think the current situation should be a standard. The most ideal situation does not necessarily need to exist in history, it might be calculated or found out by some researches.
8. Environmental groups in a heavily forested state want to restrict logging in some areas to save the habitat of an endangered squirrel. Timber company officials argue that the well-being of one type of squirrel is not as important as the wellbeing of the many families who would be affected if the restriction were to cause the company to lay off hundreds of workers. If you had the power to decided this issue, what would you do and why? Describe any trade-offs included in your solution.
Firstly, is there a way to delay the task and protect some individuals of the squirrel in another area? Secondly, how much impact does the squirrel have ecologically? Third, is there jobs available for those families? If those questions can be answered, the problem would be solved easily.
1. Complete the table by filling in the last column. For example, to calculate this value for Costa Rica, divide the number of threatened breading bird species by the total number of known breading bird species and multiply the answer by 100 to get the percentage.
2. Arrange the countries from largest to smallest according to total land area. Does there appear to be any correlation between the size oaf country and the percentage of threatened breading bird species? Explain your reasoning.
The numbers show no direct relationship between the size of countries and the percentage of threatened breeding bird species. This is probably because each country has a unique climate and geography that some are suitable for humans and some are not. If most of the lands are taken by humans, the bird species would be influenced negatively, causing the higher percentage of threatened breeding bird species.
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