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Nealk VA Psych Ch. 8
From Understanding Psychology by Morris and Maisto 6th edition
Terms in this set (34)
The biologically determined and innate patterns of behavior that exist in both people and animals. Unlearned species-specific behaviors that are more complex than reflexes and triggered by environmental events called releasing stimuli.
drive reduction theory
Approach to motivation that assumes behavior arises from physiological needs that cause internal drives to push the organism to satisfy the need and reduce tension and arousal. States that motivated behavior is aimed at reducing a state of bodily tension or arousal and at returning the organism to homeostasis. Theory that views motivated behavior as directed toward the reduction of a physiological need.
State of balance and stability in which the organism functions effectively.
External stimulus that prompts goal-directed behavior. Thing that attracts or lures people into action.
A desire to perform a behavior that stems from the enjoyment derived from the behavior itself. Type of motivation in which a person performs an action because the act itself is rewarding or satisfying in some internal manner.
Type of motivation in which a person performs an action because it leads to an outcome that is separate from or external to the person. A desire to perform a behavior to obtain an external reward or avoid punishment.
A condition in which a person reduces eating to the point that a weight loss of 15 percent below the ideal body weight or more occurs. A serious eating disorder that is associated with an intense fear of weight gain and a distorted body image. Potentially life-threatening eating disorder occurring primarily in adolescent and young adult females; an intense fear of becoming fat leads to self-starvation and weight loss accompanied by a strong belief that one is fat despite objective evidence to the contrary.
A condition in which a person develops a cycle of "binging" or overeating enormous amounts of food at one sitting, and "purging" or deliberately vomiting after eating. An eating disorder characterized by binges of eating followed by self-induced vomiting or the excessive use of laxatives. Eating disorder in which a victim alternately consumes large amounts of food (gorging) and then empties the stomach (purging), usually by induced vomiting.
Actions meant to harm or destroy. Behavior aimed at doing harm to others; also, the motive to behave aggressively. Behavior intended to do harm to others; also, the motive to behave aggressively. Behavior intended to hurt or destroy another person. P
The need to excel, to overcome obstacles.
The need to be with others.
The "feeling" aspect of consciousness, characterized by a certain physical arousal, a certain behavior that reveals the emotion to the outside world, and an inner awareness of feelings. Physiological changes and conscious feelings of pleasantness or unpleasantness, aroused by external and internal stimuli, that lead to behavioral reactions. Feeling, such as fear, joy, or surprise, that underlies behavior.
Theory that physiological changes precede and cause emotions. States that stimuli cause physiological changes in our bodies, and emotions result from those physiological changes. Theory in which a physiological reaction leads to the labeling of an emotion.
Theory in which the physiological reaction and the emotion are assumed to occur at the same time. States that the experience of emotion occurs simultaneously with biological changes. Theory that the thalamus relays information simultaneously to the cortex and to the sympathetic nervous system, causing emotional feelings and physiological changes to occur at the same time.
states that emotional experience depends on one's perception or judgment of the situation one is in
Culturally specific rules for which emotions to display, to whom, and when they can be displayed. Culture-specific rules that govern how, when, and why expressions of emotion are appropriate. Learned ways of controlling displays of emotion in social settings.
Specific need or desire, such as hunger, thirst, or achievement, that prompts goal-directed behavior.
A psychological tension and physical arousal arising when there is a need that motivates the organism to act in order to fulfill the need and reduce the tension. Internal motivational state created by a physiological need. State of tension or arousal that motivates behavior.
An unlearned drive, such as hunger, that is based on a physiological state.
A learned drive, such as ambition, that is not based on a physiological state.
Theory of motivation in which people are said to have an optimal (best or ideal) level of tension that they seek to maintain by increasing or decreasing stimulation. Theory of motivation that proposes that organisms seek an optimal level of arousal.
States that there is an optimal level of arousal for the best performance of any task; the more complex the task, the lower the level of arousal that can be tolerated before performance deteriorates. Law stating performance is related to arousal; moderate levels of arousal lead to better performance than do levels of arousal that are too low or too high. This effect varies with the difficulty of the task easy tasks require a high-moderate level while more difficult tasks require a low-moderate level.
Unlearned motive, such as curiosity or contact, that prompts us to explore or change the world around us. A motive that appears to be unlearned but causes an increase in stimulation, such as curiosity.
Two Factor Theory
Schachter-Singer's theory that to experience emotion one must (1) be physically aroused and (2) cognitively label the arousal.
Drive Reduction Approach
approach that suggests that a lack of some basic biological requirement such as water produces a drive to obtain that requirement
According to this approach, people choose how to behave based on their perceptions of the world to grow toward their unique potential
The belief that patterns in humans is similar to that of animalistic instincts
Our need for excitement stimulation and activity motivates us
Natural instincts that affect our behavior, such as the need for homeostasis making us seek food when we feel hungry.
Motives (such as the needs for affiliation and achievement) that are acquired through experience and interaction with others.
A theory of motivation stating that behavior is directed toward attaining desirable stimuli and avoiding unwanted stimuli.
the urge to belong and to give and receive love, and the urge to acquire esteem
external locus of control
the perception that chance or outside forces beyond one's personal control determine one's fate
internal locus of control
the belief that an individual has more control over life circumstances rather than the environment.
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