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the distance an object moves in one unit of time


speed in a given direction


A change in speed or direction


a push or pull exerted on an object


the amount of matter in an object


the tendency of an object to resist any change in its motion


the force that one surface exerts on another when the two rub against each other

Newton's First Law of Motion

law that states an object at rest will stay at rest and an object in motion will stay in motion until an UNBALANCED force acts upon it

Newton's Second Law of Motion

Law that states an object acted on by an unbalanced force will accelerate in the direction of the force
Force = Mass x Acceleration

Newton's Third Law of Motion

law that states for every action there is an opposite but equal reaction

Kinetic Energy

the energy an object has due to its motion

Potential Energy

Energy that is stored and held in readiness

Elastic Potential Energy

the potential energy of an object that is stretched or compressed

Gravitational Potential Energy

potential energy that depends on the height of an object

the law of conservation of energy

states that when one form of energy is converted to another, no energy is created or destroyed.


the smallest part of an element having the properties of the element


two or more atoms bonded together, examples H₂, CO₂; smallest part of a compound having the properties of that compound


A pure substance that cannot be broken down into other substances by chemical or physical means


a substance made up of atoms of two or more different elements joined chemically

physical change

a change of matter from one form to another without a change in chemical properties

chemical change

a change that occurs when a substance changes composition by forming one or more new substances

the law of conservation of matter

matter cannot be created or destroyed it simply changes form


the center of the atom that contains protons and neutrons


a subatomic particle that has a positive charge and that is found in the nucleus of an atom


a subatomic particle that has a negative charge and is found outside the nucleus in the electron cloud.


a subatomic particle that has a neutral charge and that is found in the nucleus of an atom

atomic number

The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom.

atomic mass

the number of protons and neutrons in an atom, measured in amu.


when two or more chemicals are mixed but not combined


The transfer of thermal energy from one substance to another by direct contact


the transfer of heat through a fluid (liquid or gas) caused by molecular motion


The transfer of heat through space in electromagnetic waves


a material that transfers heat well


a material that does not transfer heat well


the movement of thermal energy from a substance at a higher temperature to one at a lower temperature;

Pure substance

A substance made up of only one type of matter. Elements and compounds

Unbalanced force

when there are two or more unequal forces acting on an object. It can cause an object to start moving, stop moving, or change direction

Balanced force

two forces acting on an object in different directions are equal and do not change the motion of the object

subatomic particles

particles inside an atom (protons, neutrons, electrons)


anything that has mass and takes up space

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