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40 terms

Final Review

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speed
the distance an object moves in one unit of time
velocity
speed in a given direction
acceleration
A change in speed or direction
force
a push or pull exerted on an object
mass
the amount of matter in an object
inertia
the tendency of an object to resist any change in its motion
friction
the force that one surface exerts on another when the two rub against each other
Newton's First Law of Motion
law that states an object at rest will stay at rest and an object in motion will stay in motion until an UNBALANCED force acts upon it
Newton's Second Law of Motion
Law that states an object acted on by an unbalanced force will accelerate in the direction of the force
Force = Mass x Acceleration
Newton's Third Law of Motion
law that states for every action there is an opposite but equal reaction
Kinetic Energy
the energy an object has due to its motion
Potential Energy
Energy that is stored and held in readiness
Elastic Potential Energy
the potential energy of an object that is stretched or compressed
Gravitational Potential Energy
potential energy that depends on the height of an object
the law of conservation of energy
states that when one form of energy is converted to another, no energy is created or destroyed.
atom
the smallest part of an element having the properties of the element
molecule
two or more atoms bonded together, examples H₂, CO₂; smallest part of a compound having the properties of that compound
element
A pure substance that cannot be broken down into other substances by chemical or physical means
compound
a substance made up of atoms of two or more different elements joined chemically
physical change
a change of matter from one form to another without a change in chemical properties
chemical change
a change that occurs when a substance changes composition by forming one or more new substances
the law of conservation of matter
matter cannot be created or destroyed it simply changes form
nucleus
the center of the atom that contains protons and neutrons
proton
a subatomic particle that has a positive charge and that is found in the nucleus of an atom
electron
a subatomic particle that has a negative charge and is found outside the nucleus in the electron cloud.
neutron
a subatomic particle that has a neutral charge and that is found in the nucleus of an atom
atomic number
The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom.
atomic mass
the number of protons and neutrons in an atom, measured in amu.
mixtures
when two or more chemicals are mixed but not combined
Conduction
The transfer of thermal energy from one substance to another by direct contact
Convection
the transfer of heat through a fluid (liquid or gas) caused by molecular motion
Radiation
The transfer of heat through space in electromagnetic waves
Conductor
a material that transfers heat well
Insulator
a material that does not transfer heat well
Heat
the movement of thermal energy from a substance at a higher temperature to one at a lower temperature;
Pure substance
A substance made up of only one type of matter. Elements and compounds
Unbalanced force
when there are two or more unequal forces acting on an object. It can cause an object to start moving, stop moving, or change direction
Balanced force
two forces acting on an object in different directions are equal and do not change the motion of the object
subatomic particles
particles inside an atom (protons, neutrons, electrons)
matter
anything that has mass and takes up space