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NSG 2500 Unit 12 Intracranial regulation part B
Terms in this set (31)
What is the most common cause of head injury?
Brain damage: _______ injury: due to initial damage: contusions, lacerations, damage to blood vessels.
Brain damage: ________ injury: damage evolves after the initial insult (hours to days): due to cerebral edema, ischemia, inadequate delivery of nutrients and oxygen.
Manifestations of brain injury: altered LOC, abnormal ______, changes in _______ signs, headache, _____ (more serious brain injuries).
A concussion is also called a closed head injury or mild TBI. Mild concussions cause transient confusion, disorientation, and loss of consciousness less than _____ minutes?
Classic concussion is loss of consciousness for less than ____ hours. This will lead to posttraumatic ______.
When a patient comes into the hospital because of a concussion, the doctor may keep them in the hospital to monitor for brain bleed or they may send them home. For patients sent home, what 5 things should they report immediatley?
changes in LOC
If you have a small child who has had a brain injury that you can't console or has loss of appetite, is this a problem?
probably- could be because of the injury
Which is more severe: a concussion or contusion? What is a contusion?
surface hemorrhage (like a burise)
What is it called when a person's brain hits one part of their skull and then the opposite end?
As you get older, what happens to the size of your brain? How does this affect brain injuries?
more room for it to jiggle around
______ brain injury: object penetrates the brain or the trauma is so severe that the scalp and skull are opened.
Scalp wounds tend to bleed how much? What is the patient at risk for?
heavily (a ton)
Skull fractures usually have what kind of pain? (2 descriptive words)
What is Battle's sign?
after a skull fracture when there is ecchymosis behind the ear
Diffuse _____ injury: widespread _____ damage in the brain seen with head trauma. Patient develops immediate _____. How common is it? Does it mean that damage is over a large or small area? It causes what two things?
one of the most common type of traumatic brain injury.
unconsciousness, vegetative state
Intracranial bleeding: _______ hematoma: blood between skull and dura
________ hematoma: blood between dura and brain.
___________ hemorrhage and hematoma- bleeding in the brain tissue.
of epidural, subdural, and intracerebral hematoma, which one has different kinds? What are the three kinds?
acute, subacute, chronic
Which intracranial bleed is venous? (vein is lacerated)
Which intracranial bleed is arterial? (arteries involved) Which will bleed arterial or venous?
Epidural hematoma: how urgent is this situation?
patient will have brief loss of consciousness, come back, and then as hematoma expands, they will have sudden decreased LOC
Compensatory mechanisms fail, increased ICP that leads to herniation
Treatment for epidural hematoma: includes measures to reduce _____, remove the _____ and stop the _______. (through what to methods)?
burr holes, craniotomy
Name three things that can cause epidural hematoma?
baseball to temporal area
Subdural hematoma (what Jeanette was monitor for in her son): if symptoms are acute, they may develop over how many hours? What about subacute? Chronic?
48 hours to 2 weeks
weeks to months
Acute and subacute hematoma requires immediate _______ and control of _____. Chronic subdural hematomas: treatment is evacuation of the _____.
What drug is used to treat cerebral edema? What drug is used to treat cerebral vasospasm?
If a patient is not getting enough oxygen, their CO2 level will increase. This will cause what to happen to blood vessels? What do we want CO2 levels to be?
they dilate and make ICP worse
What is the normal ICP for adults?
How do you calculate cerebral perfussion pressure?
subtract ICP from the mean arterial pressure (MAP) 1 systolic + 2 diastolic/3
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