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What foods are high in phosphorus
Dairy, Meats, Nuts, Peanuts, Dried Beans & Peas, Whole Grains, Chocolate, Colas
What foods are high in potassium
Avocados, Mangos, Bananas, Orange Juice, Dried Fruit, Cantaloupe, Dried Peas, Beans, Tomato Sauce, & Potatoes
During dialysis, ultrfiltration occurs when:
Water is removed from blood because there is a pressure gradient across a membrane
What is the definition for dry-weight?
Post-dialysis weight at which all or most excess fluid has been removed
Why must water used for dialysate be treated?
Dialysis patients are exposed to large volumes of water during dialysis
Which patients may benefit from an increased bicarbonate concentration?
Poorly compliant with regards to fluid intake
What is the functional unit of the kidney, or the structure in the kidney that does the work?
What does infiltration mean?
A needle tip that punctures a vessel and goes out the other side, so blood escapes into the tissues
According to AAMI standards, when should bacteriologic testing for water and dialysate take place?
What is the first step in the port/catheter pre-dialysis assessment?
Assessing the ease of heparin removal and saline flushing before connecting bloodlines
Who must check the dialyzer to verify quality control information?
Two people, one of whom should be the charge nurse
What is a way to prevent infection in catheters?
Wash hands and change gloves prior to touching the catheter
What are sign and symptoms of Steal Syndrome?
Pale, Bluish nail beds of the access hand. Cold feeling in access limb. Pain in access limb (hand or fingers)
What are some complications of "flipping" the needle in AVF cannulation?
Infiltration, Stretching the needle hole, Tearing the lining of the vessel
What is the condition that can develop from using the subclavian vein for catheter placement?
Central Venous Stenosis
When assessing a fistula or graft, what needs to be felt prior to starting dialysis?
Pulse and Thrill
When drawing a blood specimen from a double lumen catheter, what should the clinician always do?
Discard the first 4-5 ml of blood before obtaining the sample
To determine the amount of urea removed from a patient during a specific dialysis treatment, what tests are needed?
Pre-BUN, Post-BUN, URR
What can the development of bacteria in bicarbonate concentrate lead to?
Pyrogen Reactions and Innfections
What is the breakdown of red blood cells with a concurrent loss or liberation of hemoglobin and large amounts of potassium?
What should be done to prevent needle sticks?
Throwing used needles into puncture-resistant, color coded containers
If the dialysate conductivity moves outside the pre-set limits, what will occur within the dialysate delivery system?
Dialysate will bypass to drain. Audio and visual alarms
What is the most important activity that you can perform to prevent the spread of infectious diseases?
What is a transducer protector?
A device inside the machine that converts air pressure into an electronic signal
Higher bicarbonate concentration in dialysate are needed when plasma bicarbonate levels drop below:
What is the Health Insurance Portability & Accountability?
A law that created national rules about the security and privacy of health data
Diffusion is movement of particles .....
From an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
How can you prevent a patient from having a dialyzer reaction?
Use cellulose acetate dialyzer membrane
What is the syndrome that cerebral edema can cause by the too rapid removal of urea nitrogen from the blood?
Dialysis Disequilibrium Syndrome
What are the steps for dialyzer reprocessing after a dialysis treatment?
Pre-Cleaning, Performance Tests, Dialyzer Rejection, Disinfection
What is the length of dialysis treatments based on?
Clearance, Blood Flow Rate, Fluid Gains, Patients Health
A patient who is fluid overloaded will probably have which symptoms?
Tachycardia, Hypertension, Dyspnea
What conditions could alter or affect dialysate flow rates?
Low water pressure, Dialysate pump failure, Obstruction in dialysate flow path
What medical problems may occur due to chronic kidney disease?
Anemia, Sleeping Problems, Pericarditis
What are the steps for reprocessing the first time?
Dialyzer labeling, Total Cell Volume, Reprocessing
What will increase the amount of solutes that will diffuse across the semi-permeable membrane?
High Concentration Gradient
What is the condition that renal patient develop due to kidney inability to reabsorb enough bicarbonate?
The endocrine functions of the kidney include what?
Making erythropoietin and the active form of Vitamin D
What is the purpose of a proportioning system?
Make dialysate by mixing fresh concentrate with fixed amounts of treated water
A dialysate that contains too much potassium causes hyperkalemia. What are the signs and symptoms?
Muscle weakness, Cardiac Arrhythmia, Cardiac Arrest
What are two criteria for rejecting a reprocessed dialyzer?
Less than 80% of original fiber bundle volume aesthetic apperance
What is a problem in dialyzer reprocessing that may cause bacteria or endotoxin contamination of the dialyzer?
Improperly prepared germicide
What is a limitation of a reverse osmosis system?
Thin film composite membranes break down when exposed to chlorine and chloramines
What labeling must be on reuse dialyzers?
Patient Name, Color Code, Medical Record #, Warning if 2 Patients have same name, Must say re-use on dialyzer
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