27 terms

unit 5

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monatomic ion
an ion consisting of a single atom
sentence: A ??? is a charged particle that consists of only one atom.
ionic bond
A chemical bond formed between two ions with opposite charges.
sentence: ??? form when one atom gives up one or more electrons to another atom.
cation
a positively charged ion, i.e., one that would be attracted to the cathode in electrolysis.
sentence: In electrolysis, ??? migrate to a negatively charged cathode.
anion
a negatively charged ion, i.e., one that would be attracted to the anode in electrolysis.
sentence: An ??? is an ionic species having a negative charge.
metallic bonding
the force of attraction between valence electrons and the metal atoms
sentence: ??? are formed from the attraction between mobile electrons and fixed, positively charged ??? atoms.
resonance structure
a way of describing delocalized electrons within certain molecules or polyatomic ions where the bonding cannot be expressed by one single Lewis structure
sentence: ??? are two forms of a molecule where the chemical connectivity is the same but the electrons are distributed differently around the structure
carbon compound
chemical substances containing carbon
sentence: An organic ??? must contain at least ???.
electrical conductivity
the degree to which a specified material conducts electricity, calculated as the ratio of the current density in the material to the electric field that causes the flow of current
sentence: It is the reciprocal of the resistivity.
sp3 orbital
The theory consists of combining atomic orbitals (ex: s,p,d,f) into new hybrid orbitals (ex: sp, sp2, sp3).
sentence: when a hybrid orbital is depicted in a textbook, the shape of the orbital is often exaggerated (elongated) to illustrate the directionality of the orbital along a particular axis, or within a particular plane.
sp2 orbital
The process of intermixing of one S and two P orbitals to give three identical hybrid orbitals is known as Sp2 or trigonal hybridization
sentence: In chemistry, hybridisation (or hybridization) is the concept of mixing atomic orbitals into new hybrid orbitals (with different energies, shapes, etc., than the component atomic orbitals) suitable for the pairing of electrons to form chemical bonds in valence bond theory.
coordinate covalent bond
between two atoms that is produced when one atom shares a pair of electrons with another atom lacking such a pair
sentence: A type of ??? in which both the shared electrons are contributed by one of the two atoms.
hybrid bonding
the concept of mixing atomic orbitals into new hybrid orbitals (with different energies, shapes, etc., than the component atomic orbitals) suitable for the pairing of electrons to form chemical bonds in valence bond theory.
sentence: ??? was introduced to explain molecular structure when the valence bond theory failed to correctly predict them. It is experimentally observed that bond angles in organic compounds are close to 109 o, 120 o, or 180 o.
sp orbital
the concept of mixing atomic orbitals into new hybrid orbitals (with different energies, shapes, etc., than the component atomic orbitals) suitable for the pairing of electrons to form chemical bonds in valence bond theory.
sentence: When a hybrid orbital is depicted in a textbook, the shape of the orbital is often exaggerated (elongated) to illustrate the directionality of the orbital along a particular axis, or within a particular plane.
covalent bond
a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms
sentence: These electron pairs are known as shared pairs or bonding pairs, and the stable balance of attractive and repulsive forces between atoms, when they share electrons, is known as ???.
polyatomic ion
a charged chemical species (ion) composed of two or more atoms covalently bonded or of a metal complex that can be considered to be acting as a single unit.
sentence: The prefix poly- means "many," in Greek, but even ? of two atoms are commonly referred to as ???.
formula unit
the empirical formula of any ionic or covalent network solid compound used as an independent entity for stoichiometric calculations.
sentence: It is the lowest whole number ratio of ions represented in an ionic compound.
binary compound
a substance composed of exactly two different elements, which are substances that cannot be simplified further by chemical means.
sentence: Examples of ??? include H2O, H2S, and NH3.
instantaneous dipole
a type of force acting between atoms and molecules
sentence: They are part of the van der Waals forces.
VSEPR theory
a model used to predict the geometry of molecules based on minimizing the electrostatic repulsion of a molecule's valence electrons around a central atom
sentence: ??? is the acronym for Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion theory.
dipole-dipole force
a force between an ion and a polar molecule
sentence: A hydrogen bond is a ??? force and is an attraction between a slightly positive hydrogen on one molecule and a slightly negative atom on another molecule.
induced dipole
a weak attraction that results when the approach of an ion induces a dipole in an atom or in a nonpolar molecule by disturbing the arrangement of electrons in the nonpolar species.
sentence: These fluctuations in electron density occur constantly, creating an induced ??? dipole force of attraction between pairs of atoms.
polar covalent bond
a type of chemical bond where a pair of electrons is unequally shared between two atoms
sentence: A ??? is a ??? between two atoms where the electrons forming the bond are unequally distributed.
London dispersion force
temporary attractive force that results when the electrons in two adjacent atoms occupy positions that make the atoms form temporary dipoles
sentence: The ??? is the weakest intermolecular force.
bond polarity
The property of shared pair of electrons being closer to one atom than the other in a covalent bond
sentence: ??? is a useful concept for describing the sharing of electrons between atoms.
nonpolar covalent bond
a type of chemical bond where two atoms share a pair of electrons with each other.
sentence: A ??? occurs when two atoms share electrons equally.
isomer
each of two or more compounds with the same formula but a different arrangement of atoms in the molecule and different properties.
sentence: An ??? is a chemical species with the same number and types of atoms as another chemical species, but possessing distinct properties because the atoms are arranged into different chemical structures.
polarity
a separation of electric charge leading to a molecule or its chemical groups having an electric dipole or multipole moment
sentence: ??? molecules interact through dipole-dipole intermolecular forces and hydrogen bonds.

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