Ch 15 North Africa (Jennings)
Terms in this set (72)
What are the four planes that have dominated North Africa?
African, Arabian, Anatolian, and Eurasian
The movement of these plates created the largest mountain range in Africa; the ______ which stretches from ________.
Atlas Mountain Range, Morocco to Tunisia
What is the region from Morocco to Tunisia called?
what are the four countries in the Maghreb?
Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia, and Libya
what dominates the North African Plane?
what are the sandy dune areas called?
what are the stony areas covered in rocky gravel called?
regs (desert pavement)
what are the flat sandstone plateaus called?
what are the two other mountain regions of North Africa and where are they located?
the Ahaggar in North Central Sahara and the Tibesti Mountains in Niger and Libya
what are the Tibesti Mountains in Niger and Libya home to?
the highest point in the Sahara MT Emi Koussi
________ are the lifeblood of Africa
what is longest river in the world and how long is it? Where does it start and end?
Nile River, 4,160 miles, Ethiopia, Uganda
Some of the earliest civilizations in history originated around the _____
Today 90% of the population of Egypt live in the ______ or 3% of Egypt's land area.
what was built in the 1950s and changed the landscape of Egypt?
Aswan High Dam
what did the Aswan High Dam allow?
for year round irrigation and hydroelectric power
However, without the yearly flooding of the Nile, no new ________ is transferred to the farm land and thus the use of _______ are needed to farm effectively
alluvial soil, fertilizers
Wadis are a result of what?
heavy rains in the desert
what are streambeds in the desert that remain dry until heavy rains?
North Africa has a varied climate because of ________. Despite heavy rains during the rainy season, this area is dominated by _______.
humid cool air masses coming from the north while hot tropical air masses come up from the South, desert
Water scarcity dominates this part of the world and is classified as a desert because _________.
it receives less than 10 inches of rainfall annually
The Sahara is the largest hot desert in the world covering ________ miles nearly ______ of North Africa and continues to grow every day through ________.
3.5 million square, 75%, desertification
The Sahara consists of two types of climate; ________ and _______
the arid (desert) and semi-arid (steppe) areas.
Farming in the Sahara is largely dependent on _________, places where underground water surfaces
Agricultural plants in the desert are dominated by trees because of the _________ (__________)
extensive root systems, olive and dates
_________ is a flat plain transition zone in the _______ allowing for ________ which can support livestock such as cattle, goats, and camels.
The Sahel, Southern Sahara desert, savannas
What is the most common animal in the Sahel?
the Senegal gerbil
Coastal areas of the Sahara enjoy a _________ climate and can support the growth of ___________ to the extent where it has become a large part of those nations' economies.
Mediterranean, fruits and vegetables
This area in Africa has large amounts of _________
what are the most important natural resources in Africa which are a result of what?
phosphate, natural gas, and petroleum, all of which are the result of mining or drilling
_________ are a natural mineral containing chemical compounds often used in fertilizers.
Petroleum exports dominate the economies of countries where that have access to the Mediterranean Sea, especially ________ and _________?
north of the Sahara; Algeria and Libya
Current historians believe that hunter-gatherers settled where around ________ years ago?
North African Plain around 10,000 years ago
These people were the first to domesticate plants and animals meaning _________.
plants and animals once wild became raised by people for food, clothing, and transportation
Egyptian civilization developed where around ________ years ago?
in the fertile Nile Valley around 6,000 years ago
Egyptians developed sophisticated _________ allowing them to grow crops biannually.
They also created a ______ and a system of writing known as _________.
365 day calendar, hieroglyphics
They also are credited with building the Ancient structures in the area such as the _________ and _______ showing they had incredible knowledge of ______ and ________.
Pyramids and Sphinx; mathematics and engineering
The Arab migration to this area started in ______when __________.
600AD, Arab armies moved westward from the Arab Peninsula
These invasion heavily influenced the area, and the ______ culture and religion still dominates.
The Ottoman Empire ruled this area from __________.
1500 to 1918 until the end of WWI
________ powers dominated the area after WWI.
France invaded and occupied _______
Italy invaded and occupied _______
The United Kingdom invaded and occupied ______
The ________ powers occupied North Africa and split up the territory along _______, rather than account for natural and cultural boundaries. The impact of this decision still ______ the people of North Africa today.
European, geometric boundaries, negatively impacts
The countries of North Africa _______ to gain their independence from the colonial powers.
Egypt was liberated from the UK in _______.
Algeria was liberated from France in _______.
Libya was liberated from Italy in _______.
Unfortunately, in all of these instances, even though the colonial powers' government did not have direct rule over these countries anymore, these newly independent countries were still beholden to their colonial masters through ______ that kept them in a _________ economically that still affects these economies today.
central banking systems, de facto colonial situation
The indigenous people of North Africa are the _________.
who were the Berbers?
traditionally nomadic herding people moving from place to place to feed their flocks
Today, the Berbers are mostly ________.
The _______ are the other major ethnic group in the area. These people are united by their ______.
The first Arabs to migrate to North Africa are known as the _______ from ________, otherwise known as the _______.
Bedouins, Southwest Asia, Arabian Peninsula
Most of the densely populated areas of this region are in close proximity to major water sources such as _______.
the coast or Nile River Valley
Today most migration in the area is due in part to ________.
employment opportunities in various countries mostly in the petroleum and natural gas industries
The Arab invasion has had the largest impact on the society and culture of this region because of the introduction of ______.
One must learn the Arab language in order to read the ______, Islam's holy book.
Many of the native people adopted ________ to be able to practice Islam.
their own version of the Arab language
The main industries in the sub region vary depending on the _______.
geographic location of the country
Pre-petroleum: this part of the world was dominated by ________.
Now ________ and _______ are the main industries
Countries that border the Mediterranean have _______.
healthy economies diverse in the production of fruits and vegetables as well as robust tourism sectors
Egypt and Tunisia enjoy the majority of the ______ industry.
Egypt has the ___________ while Tunisia has _________.
Ancient remains of the Egyptian society, beautiful Mediterranean beaches
________ in this region creates a divide between the haves and the have nots that has fueled civil unrest throughout the region that _______ the tourism industry.
Wealth disparity, severely threatens
Due to _______ most of the people in this sub region get their water from _______.
water scarcity, aquifers or underground water sources
But this has proven problematic because of _____ of these aquifers which has developed them.
In coastal situations, aquifers' water is sometimes replaced with ______ leaving them useless for human consumption.
________ is the process of removing salt form saltwater but this process has proven too _______ for widespread use in most countries.