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Anatomy - Chapter 3 (Integumentary System) Test Review
Terms in this set (62)
Skin is made up of how many layers? What are they?
-Deepest to superficial
Which layer of the skin has nerves, blood vessels, hair follicles, oil and sweat glands...?
Which cell...: makes up the outer, protective layer of skin cells
Which cell...: produces melanin to color the skin and protect from UV rays?
Which cell...: is associated with sensory receptors
Which cell...: are macrophages that help fight off infection?
What is the top layer of the dermis?
What layer makes up most of the dermis
What is the chemical substance that makes the skin darker?
More melanin means more or less protection from sunlight?
Which component of skin color has a yellow/orange pigment?
Where does the pinkish hue of skin come from?
What is another name for hair?
Where is the root of the hair shaft located?
The edge of the skin where the nail meets at the top of the digit, is known as the...
What is the whiter, half-moon shaped area below the cuticle?
What are oil glands also called?
What do oil glands produce as a softener and helps to waterproof the skin?
What is produced to help cool off your body as body temperature rises?
As you get hotter, do the blood vessels in your dermis get smaller of larger?
As you get colder, do the blood vessels in your dermis get smaller of larger?
What is produced in the skin by sunlight?
What is the least severe level of a burn?
What is the most severe level of a burn?
Which burn burns the epidermis and dermis completely?
What is melanin, where is it produced, and what functions does it provide for the body?
-A pigment that gives color to the skin
-It's produced in the epidermis
-Protects the skin from sunlight
What is the function of keratin? Where can it be found and where is it produced?
-Keratin is thick, waterproof protein
-Forms a barrier between the outer environment and the body
-Found in the outer layer of the skin (epidermis)
What does the rule of 9's refer to?
The rule of 9's refers to the system used to estimate the total area affected by a burn in an adult.
What are the major functions of the skin?
-Regulation of body temperature
-Excretion and absorption
-Synthesis of Vitamin D
What is the outer most layer of the skin known as?
What is the tough fibrous protein that forms the basic structure of hair, nails, and calluses?
What is the inner most layer of the skin known as?
Hypodermis or subcutaneous layer
What are the two major types of glands that can be found in the dermis?
-Sebaceous gland (oil)
-Sudoriferous gland (sweat)
What gives hair its color?
-The amount and type of melanin
-Iron and sulfur
Which structures contain keratin?
Epidermis, hair, nails, calluses
Explain how the dermis enables the body interact with the external environment.
-Sensory nerves such as corpuscles allow the body to interact with the external environment.
-Meissner corpuscles are nerve endings that are sensitive to touch
-Pacinian copuscles detect pressure and vibrations
Why are third-degree burns--which destroy the epidermis and dermis of the skin--over large regions of the body often fatal?
-They are fatal because infections are easier to occur with this type of burn
-They're also fatal due to loss of water, kidney failure, etc.
Explain, in what ways are hair and nails similar?
-They're both comprised of keratin and keratinocytes
Distinguish the epidermis from the dermis?
-Epidermis: 4 to 5 layers, avascular, epithelial tissue
-Dermis: 2 layers, vascular, connective tissue
What causes hairs to be different colors?
-The color is determined primarily by the amount and type of melanin
-Dark hair - a lot of melanin
-Blond/Red - melanin with iron and sulfur
What gives the skin of different individuals colors?
-Melanin, which is produced by melanocytes
-Everyone has the same number of melanocytes, but different amounts of melanin is produced.
What are the components of the integumentary system?
Describe the hypodermis.
-Composed of adipose tissue
-Contains fat, blood vessels, corpuscles, etc.
-Briefly explain how injured tissue is repaired, including the processes of regeneration and fibrosis.
-Inflammatory Phase: blood clot forms in the wound and loosely unites the wounds edges
-Migratory Phase: the clot becomes a scab, epithelial cells migrate beneath the scab to bridge the wound
-Proliferative Phase: Characterized by extensive growth of epithelial cells beneath the scab, depression by fibroblasts of collagen fibers in random patters, and continued growth of blood vessels.
-Maturation Phase: the scab sloughs off once the epidermis has been restored to normal thickness.
What are the most dangerous consequences of burns?
-Loss of water, plasma -- causes shock
-Reduced circulation of blood
-Decreased urine production
-diminished immune response
Which factors can affect hair growth?
What is the epidermis composed of?
Composed of mainly of keratinized stratified squamous epithelium.
Where does the epidermis get its nutrients?
From the dermis below
What might kill the dermis?
Interference may kill the dermis such as pressure ulcers.
What is Psoriasis?
-Chronic skin disorder
-Cells divide more frequently forming patches of red keratinized cells
-Caused by overactive immune system, genetics and gene mutations
What is the dermis composed of?
Composed of connective tissue containing collagen and elastic fibers
What type of tissue is the Papillary region composed of?
Areolar connective tissue
What type of tissue is the Reticular region composed of?
Dense irregular connective tissue
What is albinism?
An inherited inability to produce melanin
What is vitiligo?
-It is the loss of melanocytes in areas of the skin
-Produces white patches
What is Jaundice?
-Yellowish color to skin and whites of eyes
-Buildup of yellow bilirubin in blood from liver disease
What is cyanotic?
-A bluish color to nail beds and skin
-Hemoglobin depleted of oxygen looks purple-blood
What is erythema?
-Redness of the skin due to enlargement of capillaries in the dermis
-During inflammation, infection, allergy, or burns
What are the primary functions of hair?
-Reduction of heat loss
-Sensing light touch
Describe 1st Degree Burn?
-Only occurs in the epidermis
Describe 2nd Degree Burn?
-Destroys the entire epidermis and part of dermis
-fluid filled blisters separate epidermis and dermis
-Heals without grafting in 3 to 4 weeks
Describe 3rd Degree Burn?
-Destroys epidermis and dermis
-Damaged area is numb due to loss of sensory nerves
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