Respiratory regulation of pH:
Cells produce CO2 which is transported by blood and exhaled. In the blood, CO2 enters the RBC's and
CO2 +H2O ------> H2CO3 ------>H+ + HCO3-
This is a reversible equation. If the amount of CO2 production (________ increases or decreases?) in the body, it will cause more H+ to form.
This happens in conditions called _________, as in diabetes or starvation, where excess _______ bodies are formed or if there is excessive ________ where bicarbonates are lost.
This stimulates the respiratory center directly and indirectly, and the person ______, causing CO2 to leave the body and the pH remains unchanged.
In metabolic alkalosis, (less hydrogen ions) a condition brought about by excessive ingestion of alkalis, like antacids, or repeated vomitting, leading to loss of acid, the pH rises....this results in HYPOVENTILATION, as the amount of H+ is less, so the respiratory center is inhibited, breathing becomes SHALLOW, and the CO2 in blood rises and consequently H+ increases and pH will fall and it is brought back to normal. (the kidneys will secrete biocarbanate)
renal regulation of pH:
In respiratory acidosis, the _________ is impaired, because of severe emphysema, or other respiratory conditions. Also seen after anesthesia, when the effects of muscle relaxants has not worn off. The level of CO2 rises in the blood, more H+ are therefore produced, more H+ are therefore secreted by the KIDNEYS, in exchange for Na+.
they also resist the drop in pH by shunting the HCO3- into the blood
in the collecting ducts, the H+ are buffered by PHOSPHATE
if the pH rises on the other hand, as in respiratory alkalosis, due to hyperventilation as in anesthetized patients,. in high altitudes, hyperpyrexia, and some emotional states; the H+ concentration is low, therefore, HCO3- is secreted into the tubule lumen and excreted, and H+ is reabsorbed. This process is however not nearly as efficient as when the pH falls.
When you're vomitting, or you've been sweating a lot, dehydrated... along with water you are also losing electrolytes (also called solutes), Na+, K+, Ca, Mg. zinc, HCO3-, all of these... This is mediated by ________.
What happens is after you have lost a lot of fluid, the volume of blood which passes through the afferent arterioles, the blood volume and blood pressure is low, the _____ cells in the afferent arterioles sense that the blood pressure & volume is low so they secrete _____. Which travels in the blood stream, goes to the liver and makes angiotensinogen to antgiotensin and that gets converted in the lungs to angiotensin II and then that comes back into the blood and goes to the ______ gland where it causes release of ______. This will cause reabsorption of sodium Na+.