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Politics of Canada
Quebec & Aboriginal Issues
Terms in this set (75)
Aboriginal Right to Vote
In 1960 aboriginal peoples in Canada were granted the right to vote in federal elections. Prior to this, for aboriginals to vote they were required to give up their status under the Indian Act.
The recognition of Aboriginal land claims and the right to continue to hunt and fish on their traditional lands.
The policy of the federal government towards aboriginal peoples, from the mid 19th century until the late 1960's. The policy was intended to integrate the aboriginal peoples into mainstream Canadian society. It included the provisions of the Indian Act, the establishment of residential schools, and the anti-potlatch laws. The final attempt came in the form of the 1969 "white paper" which met with huge opposition by aboriginal people and was eventually discarded.
Assembly of First Nations
Formed in 1980 to represent all the aboriginal groups across Canada in their dealings with the federal government.
The Official Languages Act of 1969 made English and French both official languages in all federal institutions. Both languages on all products.
An act passed in 1977 by the Parti Quebecois government which made French the only official language in the Province of Quebec. All business signs displayed outside had to be in French. All children, except those with a parent whose first language was English, must attend French-speaking schools. (replaced Bill 22)
A separatist party from Quebec that elected members to the federal parliament in every election since 1993.
Left the Conservative government to become leader of the separatist Bloc Quebecois. (1996 Premier of Quebec).
Liberal leader of Quebec during the 1970s and 1980s. He was pro-Canada, but was still a Quebec nationalist.
Charlottetown Accord 1992
The second attempt since 1982, to amend the constitution in Canada. Its main provisions were to accept Quebec as a distinct society, reform the Senate to make it an elected body, and recognize aboriginal self government. It was rejected in a national referendum.
After the 1995 Quebec Referendum, Prime Minister Jean Chretien's Liberal government legislated the Clarity Bill, which called for a very clear question and a clear majority in any future Quebec referendum.
The Supreme Court of Canada case which defined Aboriginal title. States that Aboriginal tribes could claim ownership of
land if they could prove that they occupied the land before the Canadian government claimed sovereignty over it.
A term contained in the failed Meech Lake Accord, which would have recognized the special nature of Quebec. Supporters of the term's inclusion in the Accord felt that it
would help protect the French language and Quebec culture. Opponents such as former Prime Minister Trudeau, believed
that the concept would isolate Quebec from the rest of Canadian society instead of maintaining the bicultural/bilingual nature of the nation.
Founded the Union Nationale Party in Quebec in the mid 1930s. In 1936, this pro-business, "small-c" conservative nationalist party won the election and he became premier. He was defeated in 1939, but regained office in 1944 and served as premier until his death in 1959. He strongly supported Catholic Church involvement in educational and social responsibilities. He was responsible for introducing the Quebec "fleur-de lys" flag in 1948, which became a symbol of Quebec nationalism.
Front de la Liberation de Quebec A radical separatist organization of the 1960s and early 1970s which was responsible for the October Crisis of 1970.
Originally introduced in 1876, it established the policies of the federal government in its role of being responsible for lndians in Canada. The purpose of the original act was the assimilation of lndians into white culture. Achieved by enrolling lndian children in residential schools and through the Christian churches. Illegal for lndians to vote or drink alcohol. A major revision occurred in 1951. Prohibition of alcohol and restrictions on the Potlatch were removed. The most recent major change occurred in 1985, when women were given the right to retain lndian status when marrying non-Indian men.
Kitchen compromise-November 4
1981, A late night, last-minute agreement between Ottawa and nine of the ten provinces to accept the Charter as part of a new constitution if an "escape clause" was added. The only province that was not part of the agreement was Quebec. The "escape clause" became the "notwithstanding clause".
The right to speak and have services in one of the two official languages of Canada.
Quebec Labour Minister who was kidnapped by the FLQ five days after James Cross was taken. He was called the
"Minister of Unemployment and Assimilation" by the FLQ. He was later killed.
"Maltre Chez Nous"
The slogan of the Liberal party in the 1962 election. It meant to strengthen Quebec's control of its economy by encouraging more French participation in business activities.
Meech Lake Accord 1987
The result of a federal-provincial first ministers' conference held at Meech Lake, north of Ottawa. Instigated by Prime Minister Brian Mulroney
(1992) The second attempt since 1982, to amend the constitution in Canada. Its main provisions were to accept Quebec as a distinct society, reform the Senate to make it an elected body, and recognize aboriginal self-government. It was reflected in a national referendum.
Policy adopted by the federal government in 1971 to support and encourage all ethnic groups in Canada to honour their culture and share it with the rest of Canada.
A struggle by the Nisg'a, Citksan, and Wet'suwet'en tribes of the Nass Valley in northern British Columbia to establish their claim to land they said they had occupied for centuries. It became the first modern day treaty signed in British Columbia when the Nisg'a agreed to a settlement in 1996.
This clause allows governments to pass a law that violates a specific freedom under the Charter of Rights and Freedoms. The clause expires five years after it is invoked but may be renewed if the government so desires.
On October 5 1970 the FLQ kidnapped British Trade Commissioner James Cross in Montreal, 'and demanded the release of jailed FLQ members. Demand was refused, and on October 10 the Quebec Labour Minister, Pierre Laporte, was also kidnapped. PM Trudeau invoked the War Measures' Act. Several hundred Quebecers were arrested and jailed without any charges being laid. On October 16, the Canadian Army was ordered to patrol the streets of Montreal and Ottawa, and on the 17th, Pierre Laporte's body was discovered. Several weeks later, the kidnappers of Cross were discovered. He was released in exchange for the kidnappers being given safe passage to Cuba. Most people who had been arrested under the War Measures' Act were released.
Official Languages Act
Passed by the Trudeau government in 1969 to enact one of the major recommendations of the Bilingual and Bicultural Commission. This made Canada an officially bilingual country. It required the federal government to provide services in both languages across Canada in all federal institutions.
Began over a decision by the Town Council to expand a golf course into Mohawk land. The Mohawk Warrior Society decided to stop the expansion, which led to a stand off between the Quebec Police, the Canadian Army, and the Mohawk warriors.
Separatist party in Quebec founded by Rene Levesque in 1967. The party came to power in 1976, and failed in its attempt to have a sovereignty association referendum passed in 1980.
Patriation of the Constitution
The 1982 Canadian Constitution was passed by the federal government and nine of the ten provinces. The BNA Act, on the other hand, was a British Act and could be amended only by the British Parliament. The 1982 Canada Act included an amending formula: no longer would Canada have to call on the British Parliament to amend the Canadian Constitution. (Prime Minister Trudeau)
Quebec Referendum 1980
Quebec Premier Rene Levesque held a referendum in 1980 based on the concepts of sovereignty association. Quebec would be politically independent, but would maintain a close economic partnership with Canada.The final vote count resulted in the question going down to defeat 60% to 40%.
Quebec Referendum 1995
In 1995 Premier Jacques Parizeau of Quebec held a second referendum on Quebec sovereignty. The results were extremely close. This time, the referendum was defeated 50.6% to 49.4%. The "near death" experience resulted in the federal government's introduction of the Clarity Bill.
Early 1960s, the Quiet Revolution was promoted by the newly elected Liberal Government of Quebec, led by Premier
Jean Lesage. Aim was to modernize Quebec, partially by lessening the power of the Roman Catholic Church. The government established control over education and social services and also promoted more Francophone control over the Anglophone-dominated economy. The provincial government also pushed for special status for Quebec within
Under the Indian Act aboriginal children were forced to attend these educational institutions, where teachers would try to assimilate children into the western culture. Many students suffered extreme emotional or physical abuse while at these schools.
Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism
Established in 1963 by Prime Minister Lester Pearson, it recommended that federal government services across the country should be available in French and English. It also said that the federal civil service should be open equally to English and French speakers and that French as a second language be promoted in English speaking parts of Canada.
A policy of creating a separate independent country of Quebec, advocated by the Parti Quebecois since 1967.
A term used by Rene Levesque to describe the relationship between Quebec and Canada. It implied that Quebec would be politically independent but economically joined to Canada.
Pierre Elliot Trudeau
Fifteenth Prime Minister of Canada, 1968-1979, 1980-1984. Trudeau won his first election on a wave of popularity ("Trudeaumania") in 1968. He was responsible for introducing the War Measures Act during the FLQ Crisis of 1970. A passionate federalist, he campaigned in 1980 to help defeat the Quebec referendum on sovereignty. In 1981 he negotiated with the premiers to patriate the Canadian Constitution from Britain. Included in the new Constitution was the - charter of Rights and Freedoms, which he hoped would bring about what he called "a just society". The Charter is his greatest legacy.
The name taken by aboriginal people in Canada to strengthen the fact that they were distinct nations and therefore should govern their own territories.have the right to
The Great Darkness
A period in Quebec between 1936 and 1959. The province was dominated by the Maurice Duplessis and the Union Nationale. The Catholic church was influential, the Quebec government rejected English Canada and made limited progress.
premier of Québec 1958 to 1956. Known as the father of the Quiet Revolution
War Measures Act
an Act that gives the federal government emergency powers during wartime, including all peoples' civil rights
proclaimed French the official language of the civil service in Quebec
served as premier of the Canadian province of Quebec from 1976 to 1985. In addition, he founded the Parti Quebecois, a political party that aims to make Quebec an independent French-speaking nation
Meech Lake Accord reference to recognize Quebec as a "distinct society" having the right to take action "to preserve and promote the distinct identity of Quebec."
A Cree NDP member of the Manitoba legislature who helped delay the proceedings of the Meech Lake Accord.
what became known as the Meech Lake Accord
the round of negotiations involving the Charlottetown Accord
in Charlottetown accords, recognized Quebec as distinct society within Canada, aboriginal rights, non discrimination of gender,
A federal political party that was founded officially in 1991. The party promotes Quebec's interests and Quebec sovereignty.
Premier of Quebec during Second Quebec Referendum
Canadian government declared Quebec to be a "unique society"
First Nations, Métis, and Inuit peoples.
The Inuit are a group of culturally similar indigenous peoples inhabiting the Arctic regions of Canada, Denmark, Russia and the United States.
people of mixed French and native heritage
Full privileges as a Canadian and special rights as Indians.
although they have Indian ancestors, have lost their special rights for a variety of reasons
used only when referring to legislation as in a historical sense or if referring to status
In 1990s used in place of Indian Band or Indian Nation
Was meant to protect the Natives from White uncontrolled settlements. Signed in 1763 and it prevented any further settlement until negotiations had been solved.
Parcels of land set aside by the federal government for the Aboriginal people.
an official statement of policy
white paper 1969
abolition of reserves and an end to special status for treaty Indians. The government believed that special status had been the cause of difficulties.
The Unjust Society: Canada has not kept its word on treaties signed as co-equals with trust.
Loss of trust. Attempt to make responsibility for aboriginals federal->provincial. White Paper=cultural genocide
National Indian Brotherhood
formed to represent status indian
Native Council of Canada
formed to represent non-staus indians and metis
Office of Native Claims
1974-deals with the issue of land rights
Specific Land Claims
based on existing treaties
Comprehensive Land Claims
Comprehensive claims are based on the traditional use and occupancy of land by Indians, Métis or Inuit who did not sign treaties.
Declaration of the First Nations
1975 Included the rights and nationhood of self-government
in BC, aboriginal people reclaimed sacred land
The Ipperwash Crisis was an Indigenous land dispute that took place in Ipperwash Provincial Park, Ontario in 1995. Several members of the Stoney Point Ojibway band occupied the park in order to assert their claim to nearby land which had been expropriated from them during World War II. During a violent confrontation, the Ontario Provincial Police (OPP) killed unarmed protester Dudley George.
Recognize aboriginal peoples' right to make decisions about matters in their community,
an Arctic territory in northern Canada created in 1999 and governed solely by the Inuit (resources, fishing and hunting rights)
Statement of Reconciliation 1998
Canadian government recognized that policies which sought to assimilate aboriginal peoples were not conducive to building a strong country
5. What are the roles of the President?
According to the textbook, what are "two sources of disagreement .... [that] are constant objects of political contention in the United States."
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