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The Unfinished Nation Chapter 2

history chapter 2
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Jamestown (1607)
Only 104 men survived. Site was low and swampy (failed for 17 years). Founded as a Joint Stock company to make a profit.
1619
First African workers in Virginia. 20 some African negroes. Colonists thought they were indentured servants.
House of Burgesses (1619)
Established representative gov't. (early precedent for self government)
Plymouth (1620)
Puritan Separatists. Set sail on the Mayflower, drew up the Mayflower Compact and governed themselves. "combine ourselves together into a civil body politic"
(early precedent for self-government)
Massachusetts Bay Colony (1630)
Gov'n John Winthrop. Created a refuge for Puritans and, eventually, a "city on a hill" (WInthrop)
Maryland
Originally a refuge for Catholics, and the Maryland Toleration Act (1649)
Rhode Island
Roger Williams founded, 1635-36. Advocated separation from England. Rhode Island was the only colony which all faiths could worship.
Pequot War
1637. Natives almost wiped out. Bloodiest battle between whites and Indians. White's called it King Philips War(Indian Chief).Whites and Mohawks ambushed Metacomet and killed him. Fragile alliance disbanded.
Anne Hutchinson
felt that one could talk directly to God. Challenged assumptions about role of women in Puritan society. Convicted of heresy and sedition, banished with her family in 1638.
English Civil War
King Charles I antagonized the Parliament by dismissing them twice in two years. They organized a military force --Cavaliers (support the king)
Navigation Acts (late 17th century)
Only trade with English ships and items exported only to England (tobacco); European goods must go through England to get taxed before the colonies receive; Coastal trading among colonies will be subject to taxes and custom officials will be appointed. Not enforced because of salutary neglect.
King Phillips War (Metacom's War) (1675-1678)
England natives defending themselves against an ever increasing white settlement, 12 New England towns destroyed and about 1/2 of New England towns attacked, Metacom was eventually captured and killed
Bacon's Rebellion
The autocratic rule of Berkley, Demonstrated instability of large population of non-landowners; continued struggle for white and Indian spheres of influence. Bacon was a westerland farmer.Nathaniel Bacon angered about hold the line of settlement to avoid Indian conflicts. Motivated movement away from indenture and toward race based slavery.
Pennsylvania
Society of Friends, first leader George Fox & Margaret Fell. Quakers rejected predestination concept and original sin. Pacifists.
Dominion of New England
An administrative union of English colonies in the New England region of North America, failed
Glorious Revolution (1688-89)
Touched off revolutions in several colonies (bloody ones); representative assemblies revived; colonial unification abandoned. 1688-89
Spanish "Southwest"
Spanish began to fortify borders by est. forts (San Antonio area). Greatest threat was the French near Texas.
"mail order" brides in Jamestown
VA Co. sent ironworkers and craftsman with 100 Englishwoman for wives to Virginia Colony.
What led to the Pueblo Revolt?
The harsh treatment of the Spanish and the Missions were tolerated at beginning but as the priests continued their power push by enforcing taxes on converted natives, burning every religious sacred thing of the pueblo people, forbidding the Kachina dances that are done at ceremonies, and arresting 43 shamans, killing 4, along with the drought that was destroying livestock and crops the natives under the leadership of shaman Pope, who was released from capture, revived their traditional religious culture and now wanted the Spanish out
Why was there such intensified religious restriction before Pueblo revolt?
Continued power struggle between the Spanish governors and the religious friars over. Both groups were there just to exploit the pueblos and competition to who can get the most out of the labor and resources of them. In order for the friars to get control of the labor they offered they needed to convert the natives and so they believed the best way to do so was to eliminate any other religious option, including the one they were originally practicing
Result of Pueblo Revolt
Spanish lost the colony to the Pueblo and their monopoly over the midwest. The Spanish horses are captured and spread throughout the Southwest becoming the start of the horse culture that arises throughout the heart of america
What happened during the Pueblo Revolt? (damages done) and how many natives were involved?
Pueblo indians killed 400 spanish, burned churches, put poop on chuches, killed preist & sent surviving spanish fleeing, 17,000
What was different about the treatment of the Pueblos this time after the Spanish had returned?
The Spanish weren't forcing them to give up their culture anymore - they were less oppressive
Stono Rebellion (1676)
first major slave rebellion (South Carolina), slaves stole a supply of guns and killed 20-25 whites, slaves hoped to escape to Florida. Enacted strong laws stopping slaves from assembling in groups and from being taught to read.
slavery in South Carolina
imported slaves with specific knowledge of rice growing. Most southerners did not own slaves but felt that slaves were inferior to all whites
Maryland Toleration Act, 1649
protected Roman Catholics from discrimination and gave Christians some degree of religous action
Headright System (Chesapeake)
Method of attracting settlers to Virginia; after 1618, it gave fifty acres of land to anyone who paid for their own passage or for that of any other settlers who might be sent or brought to the colony.
"City on a Hill"
John Winthrop's statement the Puritans were to live as a model Christian society for the world (the beginning of American Exceptionalism?)
New England Colonies
migrated as families, longer life expectancy, religously motivated,
Chesapeake Colonies
intially mostly single men, motivated by trade and profit
Halfway Covenant
signified decrease in religous zeal of 2nd generation Puritans, In 1662, Puritans permitted the baptized children of church members into a "half-way" membership in the congregation and allowed them to baptize their children; they still could not vote or take communion.
Pilgrims
sepratists who wanted to end all ties with a corrupt England and corrupt Europe (beginning of theme of US' isolationism)
Puritans
led by John Winthrop, wanted to reform or "purify" the Church of England, 11 ships and 700 people to Mass. Bay, lived in villages centered around a meeting house, strict moral code - no card playing no dancing
Pennsylvania
Founded by William Penn when King Charles II settled a debt with Penn's father using land in 1681; proprietary colony with William Penn as the proprietor, settled by Quakers
Relations with Great Britain - Restoration (1660) and the Glorious Revolution (1688)
American colonists reluctant to accept the Restoration as it appeared to show the failure of puritan reform.
Glorious Revolution in England led to small rebellions in the colonies due to the new English Bill of Rights
Virginia Company (1606)
English joint stock companies chartered by James I with the purpose of establishing colonies in America
Pequot War (1634-38)
armed conflict between English colonists and Pequot Indians, resulting in hundreds of Indians killed or in captivity
"Peaceable Kingdom"
William Penn's vision of Pennsylvania inhabited by both Indians and Europeans
Antinomianism
An interpretation of Puritan beliefs that stressed God's gift of salvation and minimized what an individual could do to gain salvation; identified with Anne Hutchinson
Great Migration (in England, 1630-42)
Settlement of over twenty thousand Puritans in Massachusetts Bay and other parts of New England
Indentured servants
Individuals who sold their labor for a fixed number of years in return for passage to the colonies; indentured servants were usually young, unemployed men and could be sold.
Proprietary colony
A colony founded as a grant of land by the king to an individual or group of individuals; Maryland (1634) and Carolina (1663) were proprietary colonies, as was Pennsylvania (1681).
Headright System
Headrights were parcels of land consisting of about 50 acres which were given to colonists who brought indentured servants into America. They were used by the Virginia Company to attract more colonists.
cash crop (eg tobacco)
a crop produced for its commercial value rather than for use by the grower.
Antinomianism
An interpretation of Puritan beliefs that stressed God's gift of salvation and minimized what an individual could do to gain salvation; identified with Anne Hutchinson.
Maryland Toleration Act (1649)
The first law on religious tolerance in the British North America; allowed freedom of worship for all Christians - including Catholics - in Maryland, but sentenced to death anyone who denied the divinity of Jesus.
Roger Williams, Rhode Island
He was kicked out of the Massachusetts Bay colony and purchased the land from a neighboring Indian tribe to found the colony of Rhode Island. Rhode Island was the only colony at that time to offer complete religious freedom.
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