Nealk VA AP The Unfinished Nation, Chapter 1
History Chapter 1
Terms in this set (26)
"Lost Colony" established by John White. White left to get supplies and took three years to return; previously
first permanent English settlement after 30 years of trying to colonize, tobacco in 1612, slaves and the House of Burgesses in 1619.
Pope's Rebellion, 1680
2,000 Spanish living among 30,000 Pueblos; tried to force to convert to Catholicism but they continued with their rituals. Led an uprising killing hundreds and capturing back Sante Fe.
Final Results of Pope, 1696
Twelve years later Spanish return to Pueblo area and crushed them. Assimilated--Spanish population, increased, Indian population, decreased by half due to war, disease and migration.
1620, created a "civil body politic"
"Land Bridge" theory
Linked Asia and North America across Bering Sea. Nomadic tribes walked across the "bridge" before the sea level rose and thus populated the Americas.
Exchange of goods and ideas between the Old and New World. From the New World: corn, potatoes, tobacco, beans, peppers, manioc, pumpkin, squash, tomato, wild rice, syphilis. From the Old World: cows, pigs, horses, wheat, sugar cane, apples, cabbage, citrus, carrots, and devastating diseases - smallpox, yellow fever
Indians were "commended" or given to Spanish landlords. Indians would work on the farm and be converted to Christianity. But it was basically just slavery on a plantation guised as missionary work.
The notion that Spaniards only brought bad things (murder, disease, slavery) to the New World; used by non-Catholics or non-Spanish to criticize the Spanish.
nomadic or mobile Native Americans
Great Basin and Great Plains native Americans were more mobile because of a lack of natural resources
effects of early explorers (Spanish and Portuguese)
introduction of deadly diseases (e.g. small pox), intermarriage, encomienda and other caste like or feudal systems
European exploration motivations
gold, glory, and god or more national power, increase wealth, and missionary zeal
King Philips War (1675)
A series of battles in New Hampshire between the colonists and the Wompanowogs, led by a chief known as King Philip. The war was started when the Massachusetts government tried to assert court jurisdiction over the local Indians. The colonists won with the help of the Mohawks, and this victory opened up additional Indian lands for expansion.
soldiers set fire to the Pequot tribe and massacred over 500 men. in 1637 a fur trader was killed by the Pequots. A force of Connecticut and Massachusetts, with Indian allies, surrounded the Pequot village at Mystic, setting it on fire and killing those escaping. In the months after the war, most Pequot had been exterminated or sold in Caribbean slavery.
Bartolome de Las Casas
First bishop of Chiapas, in southern Mexico. He devoted most of his life to protecting Amerindian peoples from exploitation. His major achievement was the New Laws of 1542, which limited the ability of Spanish settlers to compel Amerindians to labor.
joint stock company (Jamestown)
A company made up of a group of shareholders. Each shareholder contributes some money to the company and receives some share of the company's profits and debts.
Laws that governed trade between England and its colonies. Colonists were required to ship certain products exclusively to England. These acts made colonists very angry because they were forbidden from trading with other countries. Follows the principle of mercantilism
Process of not enfprcing trade laws and tariffs. Will indirectly lead to rebellion in 1776
Headrights were parcels of land consisting of about 50 acres which were given to colonists who brought indentured servants into America. They were used by the Virginia Company to attract more colonists including indentured servants
Bacon's Rebellion (1676)
Rebellion of discontent former landless servants led by Nathaniel Bacon. Led to a move from indentured servants to African slaves for labor purposes.
An interpretation of Puritan beliefs that stressed God's gift of salvation and minimized what an individual could do to gain salvation; identified with Anne Hutchinson. She was removed from Massachusetts Bay for professing this
A movement in the 17th and 18th centuries that advocated the use of reason in the reappraisal of accepted ideas and social institutions (eg Locke - natural rights, Rosseau - social contract).
Religious revival focusi ng on an emotional renewal, in the American colonies of the eighteenth century, during which a number of new Protestant churches were established (Jon Edwards, Gilbert Tennet, George Whitefield)
Proclamation Line of 1763
Stated that no colonists could settle in lands to the west of the Appalachian mountains-- made the colonists very upset
Pontiac's Rebellion (1763)
An Indian uprising after the French and Indian War, led by an Ottawa chief named Pontiac. They opposed British expansion into the western Ohio Valley and began destroying British forts in the area. Led to the creation of the Proclamation Line
French and Indian War (Seven Years' War)
Nine-year war between the British and the French in North America. It resulted in the expulsion of the French from the North American mainland and helped spark the Seven Years' War in Europe.