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Nealk AP VA The Unfinished Nation Chapter 6

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The Confederation Congress
acted as the body of government from 1781 until the Constitution was written in 1787. Passed both the Land Ordinance of 1785 and Northwest Ordinance of 1787.
Alexander Hamilton
was a very renowned and successful lawyer around this time. He was a Scottish man that called for a thing he called a national convention or impost. This convention would be held in order to alter the Articles of Confederation. He followed in the footsteps of Morris.
James Madison
Father of the Constitution (Virginia Plan). Introduced, to the 1st congress, what became the Bill of Rights.
Constitutional Convention (Philadelphia - 1787)
(everywhere but from Rhode Island) The convention was originally intended to revise the Articles of Confederation but eventually led to the development of the Constitution and a new entire form of government.
William Patterson/New Jersey Plan
was a plan composed by Patterson in reaction to the Virginia plan. This plan said that Government should remain the same with no changes (eg unicameral). It was rejected in favor of the Virginia Plan.
The Great Compromise (Connecticut Compromise)
small states received equal representation in the senate while large population states received proportion representation in the House
Separation of power/checks and balances
was the system that was created out of the great compromise as well as the Virginia plan that divided the powers. The system divided the power evenly into levels and groups that were designed to keep check on each of the others ((eg presidential veto of congress).
Federalists/Federalist Papers
name given to the supporters of the Constitution. Documents written by James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, and John Jay that spoke of supporting the Constitution
Anti Federalists
were a group that was against the Constitution. They feared a repressive central government and wanted explicit protections to civil liberties.Included George Mason, Patrick Henry, and Richard Henry Lee
The Bill of Rights
was the first ten amendments to the Constitution. The bills included such details as freedom of speech, freedom of press, freedom of assembly and freedom of religion.
The Judiciary Acts of 1789
created the Supreme Court and other "inferior" courts
Report on Manufactures
was an outlined plan by Alexander Hamilton to stimulate the growth of industry.
The First Bank of America
this idea was sparked from Hamilton wanting to pay off the national debt. Nowhere in the Constitution did congress have the explcit power to so. This is the origin of a loose interpretation of the Constitution.
Whiskey Rebellion (1791)
congress made a tax on whiskey and some distillers refused to pay it. There was an uprising put down in Pennsylvania, establishes that the president has extensive power to ensure domestic tranquility.
Jay's Treaty
tried to get the British soldiers off of their posts and stop England from blocking colonist's ships
Thomas Pinckney/ Pinckney's Treaty
Jay's treaty paved the way for negotiatons with Spain and opened the door for Thomas Pinckney. He created Pinckney's Treaty which was signed in 1795. Spain said that America had the right to go all over the Mississippi and drop off goods into New Orleans.
Prince Talleyrand/ XYZ Affair
John Adams appointed a bipartisan commission to negotiate with France in order to stabilize peace. Prince Talleyrand sent 3 agents to talk with the US delegation to demand a loan for France and a bribe for France before anything went down.
The "Quasi War"
was the sea war between France and America.
The Alien and Sedition Acts (1798)
was a way for the Federalists to get ahead of the Republican Party. The Alien Act was a restriction on aliens coming into the United States, increased the years necessary to become a citizen and vote. The Sedition Acts prosecuted people who spoke against the government plan.
Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
the Kentucky legislature was written by Thomas Jefferson, and the Virginia legislature was written by James Madison. Asserted that states could interpose and nullify federal laws
Land Ordinance of 1785
A law that divided much of the United States into a system of townships to facilitate the sale of land to settlers. Also provided for free public education
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
Created the Northwest Territory (area north of the Ohio River and west of Pennsylvania), established conditions for self-government and statehood, included a Bill of Rights, and permanently prohibited slavery
Shay's Rebellion
A 1787 rebellion in which ex-Revolutionary War soldiers attempted to prevent foreclosures of farms as a result of high interest rates and taxes. Caused several of the founders to believe that the central government needed more "energy" or power.
Annapolis Convention (1785)
attempt to amend the Articles of Confederation, failed because of lack of attendance. Led to the calling of the Philadelphia Convention.
Mount Vernon Conference
Successful at solving navigation and trade problems between Virginia and Maryland. Led to the calling of the Annapolis Convention.