31 terms

Nealk VA AP The Unfinished Nation Chapter 7

Key terms with significance
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Marbury v Madison (1803)
Stemmed from the midnight appointmetns of outgoing Presdient John Addams. Provided that the Supreme Court had judicial reveiw over federal laws.
"Republican Mother"
Help trained the new generation for citizenship. Helped speed the creation of female academies throughout the nation (1789 Mass required public schools serve females and other states gradually followed)
Second Great Awakening (1730-1740s)
It enrolled millions of new members in existing evangelical denominations and led to the formation of new denominations. Many converts believed that the Awakening heralded a new millennial age. The Second Great Awakening stimulated the establishment of many reform movements designed to remedy the evils of society before the anticipated Second Coming of Jesus Christ.
Louisiana Purchase (1803)
Napolean offered this because he didn't have resources to have to resources to establish empire in AmericaUS paid $15 million, grant exclusive commercial rights, and incorporated Louisiana people. Jefferson was pleased, but embarrassed because Constitution gave no direct authority.
John Marshall
Chief of Justice who shaped many rulings and strengthened judiciary including Marbury v. Madison and Mc Culloch v. Maryland
Chesapeake-Leopard Incident
Americans refused Brits to search, opened fire, and Brits took four men. America wanted revenge, but Jefferson expelled Brit ships and demanded an end to impressment.
Tecumseh
was a Native American leader of the Shawnee and a large tribal confederacy (known as Tecumseh's Confederacy) which opposed the United States during Tecumseh's War and the War of 1812.
"Noble Savages"
Native Americans (uncivilized but not uncivilizable). Hoped that schooling Indians would "uplift" tribes, but there were no efforts for African Americans.
Barbary States
Morocco, Algiers, Punis, Tripoli. They demanded annual tribute in exchange for protection; Jefferson was reluctant.Tripoli was unhappy, Am. Flag chopped down (war), which stopped payment of tribute, but paid the ransom
War Hawks
Eager young congressmen who highly supported war of 1812
Robert Fulton
Invented the steamboat; "Clermont" (1807) was large enough to carry passengersasntly increased the efficeincy and cost of transportation (Market Revolution)
Lewis and Clark
Jefferson acquired Lewis (who acquired Clark) to investigate geography and Indian Sacagawea as interpretator (helped lead toward Manifest Destiny)
Impressment
British navy to its people: "floating hell"--most had to be impressed into service. Many would escape to American navy, but British raided ships and took both Brits and Americans
Macon's Bill No.2
(185) Reopened free commercial relations with Britain and France
Hartford Convention (1814-1815)
Delegates from NE states met in Hartford to discuss grievances against Madison administration Reasserted right of nullification and proposed seven amendments to the Constitution (to protect NE from growing influence of South and West)
"Burned Over" district
In the early nineteenth century, upstate New York was called the "burned-over district" because of the numerous revivals that crisscrossed the region.Charles Finney, a leading revivalist active in the area, coined the term.
Charles Finney
He has been called The Father of Modern Revivalism. Finney was best known as an innovative revivalist, an opponent of Old School Presbyterian theology, an advocate of Christian perfectionism, a pioneer in social reforms in favor of women and African-Americans, a religious writer, and president at Oberlin College.
McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)
...The state of Maryland had attempted to impede operation of a branch of the Second Bank of the United States by imposing a tax on all notes of banks not chartered in Maryland. . The Court invoked the Necessary and Proper Clause of the Constitution, which allowed the Federal government to pass laws not expressly provided for in the Constitution's list of express powers, provided those laws are in useful furtherance of the express powers of Congress under the Constitution.

This case established two important principles in constitutional law. First, the Constitution grants to Congress implied powers for implementing the Constitution's express powers, in order to create a functional national government. Second, state action may not impede valid constitutional exercises of power by the Federal government.
Dartmouth v. Woodward (1819)
The case arose when the president of The Supreme Court upheld the sanctity of the original charter of the college, which pre-dated the creation of the State.

The decision settled the nature of public versus private charters and resulted in the rise of the American business corporation and the free American enterprise system.
Charles River Bridge v. Warren Bridge (1785)
the Charles River Bridge Company had been granted a charter to construct a bridge over the Charles River connecting Boston and Cambridge. When the Commonwealth of Massachusetts sanctioned another company to build the Warren Bridge, chartered 1828, that would be very close in proximity to the first bridge and would connect the same two cities, the proprietors of the Charles River Bridge claimed that the Massachusetts legislature had broken its contract with the Charles River Bridge Company, and thus the contract had been violated.

The Court ultimately sided with Warren Bridge. This decision was received with mixed opinions, and had some impact on the remainder of Taney's tenure as Chief Justice.
Sacagawea
who accompanied the Lewis and Clark Expedition, acting as an interpreter and guide, in their exploration of the Western United States.
Hamilton's First Report on Credit
The report analyzed the financial standing of the United States of America and made recommendations to reorganize the national debt and to establish the public credit. Called for full federal payment at face value to holders of government securities and the national government to assume funding of all state debt
Hamilton's Second Report on Credit
called for the establishment of a central bank, its primary purpose to expand the flow of legal tender by monetizing the national debt through the issuance of federal bank notes
Hamilton's Report on Manufactures
the United States needed to have a sound policy of encouraging the growth of manufacturing and secure its future as a permanent feature of the economic system of the nation. He argued these could be achieved through bounties or subsidies to industry, regulation of trade with moderate tariffs (not intended to discourage imports but to raise revenue to support American manufacturing through subsidy), and other government encouragement


The principal ideas of the "Report" would later be incorporated into the "American System" program by Senator Henry Clay of Kentucky and his Whig Party.
Citizen Genet
French diplomat who in 1793 tried to draw the United States into the war between France and England (1763-1834)
XYZ Affair (1798)
A commission had been sent to France in 1797 to discuss the disputes that had arisen out of the U.S.'s refusal to honor the Franco-American Treaty of 1778. President Adams had also criticized the French Revolution, so France began to break off relations with the U.S. Adams sent delegates to meet with French foreign minister Talleyrand in the hopes of working things out. Talleyrand's three agents told the American delegates that they could meet with Talleyrand only in exchange for a very large bribe. The Americans did not pay the bribe, and in 1798 Adams made the incident public, substituting the letters
Alien Act (1798)
gave president authority to deport individuals whom he considered threat to US
Sedition Act (1798)
made it a crime to write, print, utter, or publish criticism of the president of government
Kentucky Resolution
written by Jefferson; introduced nullification; states have right to judge laws made and if be, declare laws null and void (led to nullification)
Virginia Resolution
Written anonymously by Jefferson and Madison in response to the Alien and Sedition Acts, they declared that states could nullify federal laws that the states considered unconstitutional (led to nullification)
elastic clause
The Necessary and Proper Clause (also known as the Elastic Clause, the Basket Clause, the Coefficient Clause, and the Sweeping Clause.[1]) is the provision in Article One of the United States Constitution, section 8, clause 18:



The Congress shall have Power - To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution the foregoing Powers, and all other Powers vested by this Constitution in the Government of the United States, or in any Department or Officer thereof.