27 terms

Nealk VA AP The Unfinished Nation Chapter 8

Key Terms (with significance)
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Terms in this set (...)

Adams-Onís Treaty
(204) Spain ceded all of Floride to the US and gave up claim to territory north of the 42nd parallel in Pacific Northwest. American govt gave up claims to Texas--for a time.
Missouri Compromise
(205) Combined Maine and Missouri proposals into a single bill; Maine would be free and Missouri a slave state. Happy resolution of a danger to the Union.
McCulloch v. Maryland
(206) 1819 Marshall confirmed "implied powers" of Congress by upholding the constitutionality of the Bank of US. Unpopular in the South/West (states tried to drive out of business). States taxing could lead to them taxing it to death.
Worcester v. Georgia
(208) Georgia tried to regulate access to Cherokee country. Marshall invalidated law, and only federal govt had authority (empowered tribe like states, but under federal rule)
"Monroe Doctrine"
(209) 1823 JQA wrote Europe to stay our of LA (could not enforce, but British could... it was important to trade with America) recognized country's independence
Andrew Jackson
(201,4) Commanded American troops along Florida... invaded and seized Spanish forts at St. Marks and Pensacola (Seminole War). Demonstrated that US could easily take Florida by force
Second Bank of the United States
(196) More capital and couldn't forbid state banks from issuing notes, but its size and power enabled it to compel state banks to issue only sound notes.
Protective Tariff
(196) End of war dimmed prospects for A industry. Congress passed a tariff law to limit competition from abroad (cotton cloth).
John Jacob Astor, America Fur Co.
(200) After War of 1812, JJAF Co extended operations from Great Lakes westward to Rockies. Trappers increased and mountain men closely bound up with market economy, which bulk of profits flowed to merchants, not trappers.
"Era of Good Feelings"
(201-203) Expansion of economy, growth of white settlement and trade in West, and creation of states all reflected rising spirit of nationalism.
James Monroe
(201) Decline of Federalists and no important international threats, so Monroe attempted to end partisan divisions and factional disputes.
John Quincy Adams
(202-203) Great diplomat and committed nationalist (promoted American expansion) Secretary of state, Adams began negotiations with Spain over Florida.
Dartmouth College v. Woodward
(206) 1819 Further expanded contract clause of Constitution. Republicans tried to revise Dart C's charter to convert from private to state uni. Daniel Webster argued... placed important restrictions on the ability of state govts to control corporations.
Gibbons v. Ogden
(207) Court strengthened Congress' power to regulate commerce. Important issue was whether Congress' power to give Gibbons a license superseded NY's power to grant Odgen monopoly. Increased federal role in promoting economic growth and protected corporations from local govt interference.
"Corrupt Bargain"
In the election of 1824, none of the candidates were able to secure a majority of the electoral vote, thereby putting the outcome in the hands of the House of Representatives, which elected John Quincy Adams over rival Andrew Jackson. Henry Clay was the Speaker of the House at the time, and he convinced Congress to elect Adams. Adams then made Clay his Secretary of State.
"Tariff of Abominations"
(211) Manufactured goods protected and (in South) raw materials cost more. When Adams signed, the South was angered
John C. Calhoun
resigned Vice Presdiency to fight against "Tariff of Abominations", wrote South Carolina Exposition on Nullification
South Carolina Exposition on Nullification
Clained that a majority of states could nullify a federal alw. Additionally, if a majority did not vote nullify that any state that did vote to nullify could exit the union.
Force Bill
1833 - The Force Bill authorized President Jackson to use the army and navy to collect duties on the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832. South Carolina's ordinance of nullification had declared these tariffs null and void, and South Carolina would not collect duties on them. The Force Act was never invoked because it was passed by Congress the same day as the Compromise Tariff of 1833, so it became unnecessary. South Carolina also nullified the Force Act.
John Jacob Astor
Created one of the largest fur businesses, the American Fur Company. He bought skins from western fur traders and trappers who became known as montain men. Astoria was named after him.
American Fur Company
Founded by John Jacob Astor in 1808; grew to monopolize the fur trade in the United States by 1830, and became one of the largest businesses in the country; worked south of the Columbia River in Oregon
Seminole War
For seven years the Seminole Indians, joined by runaway black slaves, waged a bitter guerrilla war that took the lives of some fifteen hundred. Their spirit was broken in 1837, when the American field commander treacherously seized their leader, Osceola, under the flag of truce. The war dragged on for 5 more years, but the Seminole were defeated.
Henry Clay
Senator who persuaded Congress to accept the Missouri Compromise, which admitted Maine into the Union as a free state, and Missouri as a slave state, also developed the "American System"
Gibbons v. Ogden
(JMon) interstate commerce, In this Marshall Court case, the U.S. Supreme Court invalidated a state monopoly and reaffirmed Congress' power to oversee commerce between states. Of all the cases that have interpreted the scope of congressional power under the commerce clause, none has been more important than this
Monroe Doctrine
1823 - Declared that Europe should not interfere in the affairs of the Western Hemisphere and that any attempt at interference by a European power would be seen as a threat to the U.S. It also declared that a New World colony which has gained independence may not be recolonized by Europe.
Cherokee Nation v. Georgia
Marshall ruled that the Cherokee had "an unquestionable right" to their lands, but they were "not a foreign state, in the sense of the Constitution" but rather a "domestic, dependent nation" and so could not sue in a United States court over Georgia's voiding their right to self-rule. Was a blow to the Cherokee case, it cast doubt on the constitutionality of Indian Removal Act
spoils system
A system of public employment based on rewarding party loyalists and friends.