21 terms

Nealk VA APThe Unfinished Nation Chapter 9

Key Terms (with significance)
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Two-Party System
1830s - fully formed two-party system began to operate at nation level. Anti-Jackson forces called themselves the Whigs. Jackson's followers were Democrats (permanent name to nation's oldest political party).
Nullification Crisis
South Carolina angered at congressional tariff bill that offered no relief from tariff of abominations (so they voted to nullify the tariffs). Jackson said it was treason, so he strengthened federal forts in South Carolina and ordered warship to Charleston.
Cherokee Nation v. Georgia and Worcester v. Georgia
Cherokee tried to stop Georgia from taking lands through Supreme court appeal. Court supported Cherokee contention that state had no authority to negotiate with tribal representatives. Jackson refused to enforce the Supreme Court decision
Whigs
Denounced Jackson's use of power and named after the party in England that traditionally worked to limit king's power. Now nation had two competing political parties.
The American System
Proposed creating a great home market for factory and farm producers by raising protective tariff, strengthening national bank, and financing internal improvements. Henry Clay won support from those who favored internal improvements and economic developments with this
Spoils System
Patronage, process of giving jobs as political rewards, was the "spoils system". Jackson's embrace of this system helped cement its place in party politics.
Force Bill
Authorized president to use military to see that acts of Congress were obeyed (violence was a possibility).
Black Hawk War
Vicious! White forces attacked Indians even when they surrendered (pursued as they retreated and slaughtered many). Reinforced determination of whites to remove all native Americans to the West.
Five Civilized Tribes
All of these were forced to "Indian" Territory (Oklahoma). Choctaw (1830), Chickasaw (1837), Cherokee (1838), Seminole
"Soft money" v. "Hard money"
Soft Money: largely of state bankers and their allies. Objected to the Bank because it restrained state banks from issuing notes freely. Believed in rapid economic growth and speculation.
Hard Money: Believed coin was the only safe currency and condemned all banks that issued banknotes (state or fed). Embraced older ideas and suspicious on expansion/speculation.
Charles River Bridge v. Warren Bridge
Dispute over the toll bridge of Charles River and the free bridge of Warren. The court ruled in favor of Warren. Reversed Dartmouth College v. Woodward; property rights can be overridden by public need
Treaty of Wanghia
1884: US established first diplomatic relations with China. American diplomats secured same trading privileges as English, and trade with China increased, also provded for extraterritoriality
Webster Hayne Debate
Hayne first responded to Daniel Webster's argument of states' rights versus national power, with the idea of nullification. Webster then spent 2 full afternoons delivering his response which he concluded by saying that
Nullification Crisis
1832-33 was over the tariff policy of the Fed. Gov't, during Jackson's presidency which prompted South Carolina to threaten the use of NULLIFICATION, possible secession and Andrew Jackson's determination to end with military force.
Black Hawk War
Chief Black Hawk of Sauk tribe, led rebellion against US; started in Illinois and spread to Wisconsin Territory; 200 Sauk and Fox ppl murdered; tribes removed to areas west of Mississippi
Trail of Tears
(AJ) , The Cherokee Indians were forced to leave their lands. They traveled from North Carolina and Georgia through Tennessee, Kentucky, Illinois, Missouri, and Arkansas-more than 800 miles (1,287 km)-to the Indian Territory. More than 4, 000 Cherokees died of cold, disease, and lack of food during the 116-day journey.
Second Bank of United States
chartered in 1816, much like its predecessor of 1791 but with more capital; it could not forbid state banks from issuing notes, but its size and power enabled it to compel the state banks to issue only sound notes or risk being forced out of business.
American System
Economic program advanced by Henry Clay that included support for a national bank, high tariffs, and internal improvements; emphasized strong role for federal government in the economy.
Daniel Webster
Famous American politician and orator. he advocated renewal and opposed the financial policy of Jackson. Many of the principles of finance he spoke about were later incorporated in the Federal Reserve System. Would later push for a strong union.
Henry Clay
..., Senator who persuaded Congress to accept the Missouri Compromise, which admitted Maine into the Union as a free state, and Missouri as a slave state
Panic of 1837
When Jackson was president, many state banks received government money that had been withdrawn from the Bank of the U.S. These banks issued paper money and financed wild speculation, especially in federal lands. Jackson issued the Specie Circular to force the payment for federal lands with gold or silver. Many state banks collapsed as a result. A panic ensued (1837). Bank of the U.S. failed, cotton prices fell, businesses went bankrupt, and there was widespread unemployment and distress.