AP Human Geography Unit 3 Vocabulary
Terms in this set (107)
the process and time it takes a person to integrate into a new culture and feel comfortable within it.
the process of taking in and fully understanding information or ideas.
Cultural core/periphery pattern
The core-periphery idea that the core houses main economic power of region and the outlying region or periphery houses lesser economic ties
the identity or feeling of belonging to a group
the field that studies the relationship between the natural environment and culture
The entire region throughout which a culture prevails
the modification of the natural landscape by human activities
the characteristics and knowledge of a particular group of people, encompassing language, religion, cuisine, social habits, music and arts.
• Formal—core, periphery
• Vernacular (perceptual)—regional self-awareness
• Expansion—hierarchical, contagious, stimulus
Theory is founded on the assumption that all people solve problems and are creative.
diffusion of an idea or innovation that is not suitable for the environment in which it diffused into
notion that successful societies leave their cultural imprints on a place each contributing to the cumulative cultural landscape.
to describe a society's system of economic production.
distinguished by a set of cultural traits like language, beliefs, customs, norms of behavior, social institutions, way of life, artifacts etc.
Being a feature that helps to distinguish a person or thing; distinctive
the difference in architectural preference, mainly housing, based on social, economic, cultural and environmental factors.
the man-made surroundings that provide the setting for human activity
common houses in America
traditionally sung by the common people of a region and forms part of their culture
unwritten lore (stories, proverbs, riddles, songs) of a culture
objects of natural or culural significance
abstract or untangible human creations of society (such as attitudes, beliefs, and values) that influence people's behavior
the totality of ideas, perspectives, attitudes, memes, images, and other phenomena that are deemed preferred per an informal onsensus within the mainstream of a given culture, specificall Western culture of the early to mid 20th century
the system surveys are organized by
buildings that are generally thought of as traditional and old
the language of Haiti, derived from pidginized
French used in the slave trade.
thought of as regional variants of
a standard language.
English is the most used but it also include Spanish, English, Hindi,
Portuguese, Bengali, Russian, German, Marathi, French, Italian, Punjabi, and Urdu
boundaries within which the words are spoken
a systematic means of communicating ideas and feelings through the use of signs, gestures,
marks, or vocal sounds
A collection of many languages, all of which came from the same original tongue long ago, that have since evolved different characteristics.
A set of languages that share a common origin in the relatively recent past and display relatively few differences in grammar and vocabulary.
An extremely simple language that combines aspects of two or more other, more complex languages usually used for quick and efficient communication.
group of languages with more commonality than a language fam
is simply one which is in wide use as a primary form of communication by a specific group of living people. 5,000 - 10,000 different types
Speaking only one language/Speaking several languages
A language used between native speakers of different languages to allow them to communicate so that they can trade with each other.
the language endorsed and recognized by the government as the one that
everyone should know and use
Language that may develop when two groups of people with different languages meet. The pidgin has some characteristics of each language.
the study of place names, a special interest of linguistic geography
Belief that objects, such as plants and stones, or natural events, like thunderstorms and earthquakes, have a discrete spirit and conscious life.
the teaching of Buddha that life is permeated with suffering caused by desire, that suffering ceases when desire ceases, and that enlightenment obtained through right conduct and wisdom and meditation releases one from desire and suffering and rebirth
Cargo cult pilgrimage
Cargo Cult's believe western goods have been traded to them by ancestral spirits. It takes place in Melanesia and is important because it is a big religious movement by a large number of people
a monotheistic system of beliefs and practices based on the Old Testament and the teachings of Jesus as embodied in the New Testament and emphasizing the role of Jesus as savior
A philosophy that adheres to the teachings of the Chinese philosopher Confucius. It shows the way to ensure a stable government and an orderly society in the present world and stresses a moral code of conduct.
A religion with a relatively concentrated spatial distribution whose principles are likely to be based on the physical characteristics of the particular location in which its adherents are concentrated.
A(n)__________ is a country or part of a country mostly surrounded by the territory of another country; a(n)__________ is one which is geographically separated from the main part by surrounding alien territory. This is important to HG because a lot of countries are within other countries.
the interpretation of every word in the sacred texts as literal truth
Geomancy (feng shui)
divination by means of signs connected with the earth (as points taken at random or the arrangement of particles thrown down at random or from the configuration of a region and its relation to another)
the fifth pillar of Islam is a pilgrimage to Mecca during the month of Dhu al-Qadah
a body of religious and philosophical beliefs and cultural practices native to India and characterized by a belief in reincarnation and a supreme being of many forms and natures, by the view that opposing theories are aspects of one eternal truth, and by a
boundaries between the world's major faiths
the religion of Muslims collectively which governs their civilization and way of life
religion founded in the 6th century BC as a revolt against Hinduism, a religion that branched off from Hinduism and was founded by Mahavira; its belief is that everything has a soul, and its purpose was to cleanse the soul. Some were extreme aesthetics.
the monotheistic religion of the Jews having its spiritual and ethical principles embodied chiefly in the Torah and in the Talmud
Landscapes of the dead
The certain areas where people have commonly been buried
___________ is the belief in one god and __________ is the belief in many gods. This affects HG because many religions spread throughout the world fall under these two categories.
a term used to describe religious, ideological, and cultural aspects of the various denominations of the Latter Day Saint movement. It is important because a lot of people around the world practice ___________.
If physically and financially able, a Muslim makes a pilgrimage to Makkah. (Mecca) They usually make the trip around Ramadan. This pilgrimage is also referred to as Hajj. It is important because Islam is one of the most popular religions practiced around the world.
It is the religion of 1.3 billion people in the world. It is the predominant religion of the Middle East from North Africa to Central Asia. Half of the world's Muslims live in four countries outside the Middle East: Indonesia, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and India. It is important because Islam is one of the most popular religions practiced around the world.
A religion that actively seeks to convert and has the goal of converting humankind
the Hindu or Buddhist doctrine that person may be reborn successively into one of five classes of living beings (god or human or animal or hungry ghost or denizen of hell) depending on the person's own actions
Religion (groups, places)
1 group is universalizing religions. These are Christianity, Islam, and Buddhism. All of these have different branches. There's also ethnic religions, such as Hinduism, Taoism (sometimes Daoism), and Confucianism. These religions are spread out through out the world.
Religious architectural styles
practice concerned with the design and construction of places of worship or sacred or intentional space, such as churches, mosques, stupas, synagogues, and temples.
this is the conflicts between religions. One of these is Israel-Palestine. This consists of Roman Takeovers, Muslim conquests, and the crusades. This affects human geography because there has been a lot of bloodshed over ___________ _____________.
Religious culture hearth
This is where most religions are born. Most major religions have come from the Middle East near Israel, but a few have come from India too. This is important to human geography because where religions are created, civilizations are too.
This refers to the origin and meaning of the names of religions. This is important to HG because many names mean significant things including beliefs of cultures.
place or space people infuse with religious meaning; Ex) Jerusalem - Christianity (Church of the Holy Sepulchre), Judaism (Western Wall), and Islam (Dome of the Rock); Catholicism - The Vatican; Islam - Mecca, Medina; Hinduism - Varanasi & The Ganges River; ...
The view that the present well-being of mankind should predominate over religious considerations in civil or public affairs.
an animistic religion of northern Asia having the belief that the mediation between the visible and the spirit worlds is effected by shamans
the code of law derived from the Koran and from the teachings and example of Mohammed
Religion located in Japan and related to Buddhism. ___________ focuses particularly on nature and ancestor worship.
the doctrines of a monotheistic religion founded in northern India in the 16th century by Guru Nanak and combining elements of Hinduism and Islam
The political and theological division within Islam. __________ supported Umayyads, and __________supported Ali, ___________- A branch of Islam whose members acknowledge the first four caliphs as the rightful successors of Muhammad
____________- the branch of Islam whose members acknowledge Ali and his descendants as the rightful successors of Muhammad
philosophical system developed by of Lao-tzu and Chuang-tzu advocating a simple honest life and noninterference with the course of natural events
government run by religious leaders
Religions that attempt to be global, to appeal to all people, wherever they may live in the world, not just to those of one culture or location.
dual gods of equal power to form early monotheism; Persian; cosmic struggle over good and bad; those that do good go to heaven and bad go to hell; influenced Judaism and Christianity
the less dominant culture adopts some of the traits of the more influential one
an urban area in a Spanish-speaking country
migration of people to a specific location because relatives or members of the same nationality previously migrated there
The positive reaction where by the foreigner readily accepts the new culture as part of his life and practice.
a politically unstable region where differing cultural elements come into contact and conflict. Cultural clashes. for example, Indonesia with a background of multicultural, ethnicities and religions.
the mass expulsion and killing of one ethic or religious group in an area by another ethnic or religious group in that area
An ethnic conflict is a war between ethnic groups often as a result of ethnic nationalism or fight over natural resources. Ethnic conflict often includes genocide. It can also be caused by boundary disputes
a small area occupies by a distinctive minority culture
people of the same race or nationality who share a distinctive culture
the concept of the place (cultural geography) to which an ethnic group holds a long history and a deep cultural association with
area of land with the same culture
an area within a city containing members of the same ethnic background
the fact or state of belonging to a social group that has a common national or cultural tradition.
belief in the superiority of one's own ethnic group
a poor densely populated city district occupied by a minority ethnic group linked together by economic hardship and social restrictions
a society in which different cultural groupls keep their own identity, beliefs, and traditions
people who are believed to belong to the same genetic stock
the separation or isolation of a race, class, or group
the extent to which people are willing to interact and establish relationships with members of racial and ethnic groups other than their own
In the context of arranged marriages in India, disputes over the price to be paid by the family of the bride to the father of the groom (the dowry) have, in some extreme cases, led to the death of the bride.
a statutory right or privilege granted to a person or group by a government (especially the rights of citizenship and the right to vote)
A socially and culturally constructed set of distinctions between masculine and feminine sets of behaviors that is promoted and expected by society
difference in political views between men and women
murdering an infant
the gap between the life expectancy of men and women
Maternal mortality rate
Number of deaths per thousand of women giving birth.