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Nealk VA AP The Unfinished Nation Chapter 14
Key Terms (with significance)
Terms in this set (29)
1863 Congress passed a draft law... opposition was widespread among laborers, immigrants, and Democrats. Erupted into violence (rioted for four days in NYC 1863--left over 100 dead).
The Emancipation Proclamation
1863 Lincoln declared forever free the slaves inside the Confederacy. Did not apply to Union slave states (nor those under Union control) but clearly established the war was being fought not to preserve the Union but to eliminate slavery. Issued under war powers of the president.
He was trusted to command the war effort because he shared Lincoln's belief in unremitting combat and in making enemy armies/resources the target (not territory).
Robert E. Lee
A General for the confederates, fought many battles.
1863-General Lee lead the Confederate troops into Pennsylvania. He surprised the units in Gettysburg and the battle was the most crucial and bloodiest of the war. The victory at Gettysburg belonged to Lincoln and the Union. Turning point; last offensive attack of the South.
William T. Sherman, "March to the Sea"
William Sherman left Atlanta with army for sixty-mile-wide swath of desolation across Georgia. Wanted to deprive Confederate army of war materials and railroad communications but also break the will of Southerners by burning towns and plantations. Continued through SC and a small force didn't do anything....
1860 - attempt to prevent Civil War by Senator Crittenden - offered a Constitutional amendment recognizing slavery in the territories south of the 36º30' line, noninterference by Congress with existing slavery, and compensation to the owners of fugitive slaves - defeated by Republicans
Homestead Act - 1862
1862 Permitted any citizen or prospective citizen to purchase 160 acres of public land for a small fee after living on it for five years.
Morrill Land Grant Act 1862
Transferred public acreage to state govts which could sell land and use proceeds to finance public education. Led to new state colleges and universities.
Peace Democrats (Lincoln's greatest political problem). Lincoln ordered military arrests of civilian dissenters and suspended right of speedy trail. 1862 said all persons who discouraged enlistments were subject to martial law.
The constitutional amendment ratified after the Civil War that forbade slavery and involuntary servitude.
Confederate States of America
A republic formed in February of 1861 and composed of the eleven Southern states that seceded from the United States
An American statesman and politician who served as President of the Confederate States of America for its entire history from 1861 to 1865
Monitor and Merrimack
1862 Vessels met in battle... neither sunk but Monitor put an end to Virginia's raids and preserved the blockade. (?)
First Battle of Bull Run
July 21 almost succeeded in dispersing the Confederate forces but Southerners counterattacks and panicked Union troops. Severe blow to Union morale and the president's confidence in officers.
1862 Civil War battle in whcih 23,000 troops were killed or wounded in one day, Bloodiest Day of the war. Both sides claimed victory. Afterword Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation. Burnside Bridge.
Grant besieged the city from May 18 to July 4, 1863, until it surrendered, yielding command of the Mississippi River to the Union.
April 9 surrendered what was left of forces. Long war was now effectively over (Jefferson Davis captured and Southern resistance collapsed)
Pacific Railway Act 1862
1862 legislation to encourage the construction of a transcontinental railroad, connecting the West to industries in the Northeast (Union Pacific and Central Pacific RR)
ex parte Merryman
-1861 Chief Justice Taney ruled that Lincoln had exceeded his authority in suspending the writ habeas corpus in Maryland. -Lincoln ignored Taney's ruling, argued that the constitution allowed this suspension in a time of rebellion
ex parte Milligan
Supreme Court decided that the suspension of habeas corpus was unconstitutional because civilian courts were still operating, and the Constitution of the United States (according to the Court) only provided for suspension of habeas corpus if these courts are actually forced closed. In essence, the court ruled that military tribunals could not try civilians in areas where civil courts were open, even during wartime.
States bordering the North: Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky and Missouri. They were slave states, but did not secede.
a black regiment led by white officers, it earned honor and respects for its black soldiers by continuing to fight after suffering heavy losses
a speech given by Abraham Lincoln after the Battle of Gettysburg, in which he praised the bravery of Union soldiers and renewed his commitment to winning the Civil War; supported the ideals of self-government and human rights
A war that is unrestricted in terms of the weapons used, the territory or combatants involved, or the objectives pursued
1865 - Agency set up to aid former slaves in adjusting themselves to freedom. It furnished food and clothing to needy blacks and helped them get jobs
a group that believed the South should be harshly punished and thought that Lincoln was sometimes too compassionate towards the South.
Union maintained a massive effort on the Atlantic and Gulf Coast of the Confederacy to prevent the passage of trade goods to and from the Confederacy
Union war plan by Winfield Scott, called for blockade of southern coast, capture of Richmond, capture Mississippi R, and to take an army through heart of south
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Nealk VA AP The Unfinished Nation Chapter 15
Nealk VA AP The Unfinished Nation Chapter 7
Nealk AP VA The Unfinished Nation Chapter 6
Nealk VA AP The Unfinished Nation Chapter 8
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