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Nealk VA AP The Unfinished Nation Chapter 15
Key Terms (with significance) First step in the effort to secure civil rights and economic power for former slaves.
Terms in this set (34)
1) Citizenship for African Americans, 2) Repeal of 3/5 Compromise, 3) Denial of former confederate officials from holding national or state office, 4) Repudiate (reject) confederate debts
Plessy v. Ferguson
a 1896 Supreme Court decision which legalized state ordered segregation so long as the facilities for blacks and whites were equal ("separate but equal")
Lincoln's plan for Reconstruction
Lenient policy. Announced Dec. 1863 and helped white Southerners who pledged loyalty & abolition of slavery. Extended suffrage to educated, property-owning, or Union army-serving blacks. (Radicals didn't like)
Johnson's plan for Reconstruction
Majority of white men must swear oath of loyalty, new government must ban slaver and ratify 13th Amendment, Confederate officials may vote and hold office
1867, removed governments in states not ratifying 14th Amendment, made 5 military districts, state must write a new constitution, ratify 14th Amendment, and allow African Americans to vote
Citizens cannot be denied the right to vote because of race, color , or precious condition of servitude
Most black agricultural laborers became tenants of white landowners. they worked their own plots of land and paid their landlords fixed rent/share of crops.
Blacks and poor whites were virtually imprisoned by this. New credit system centered on local country stores (owned by planters/merchants). Farmers did not have steady cash flow, so they relied on merchants' credit for purchases. Farmers gave lien (claim) on crops for loans--trapped in cycle of debt.
Compromise of 1877
(388,9) First step toward developing stable, permanent Republican Party in the South. Failed though. South changed in some ways in favor of Compromise, but Democratic Party prevailed.
Booker T. Washington, "Atlanta Compromise"
An educator who urged blacks to better themselves through education and economic advancement, rather than by trying to attain equal rights. In 1881 he founded the first formal school for blacks, the Tuskegee Institute.
Jim Crow Laws
State and local laws in the United States enacted between 1876 and 1965. Stripped blacks of many modest social, economic, and political gains made (inhibited black agitation for equal rights).
1865 - Agency set up to aid former slaves in adjusting themselves to freedom. It furnished food and clothing to needy blacks and helped them get jobs
Radical Republicans made this. Called for president to appoint provisional governor for each conquered state (majority pop pledged loyalty... could summon state constitutional convention). Abolish slavery, disenfranchise Confederate leaders, and repudiate debts by state govts during war. Left question of political rights for blacks up to states. Passed 1864 but Lincoln vetoed... Lincoln had to accept some
Laws denying most legal rights to newly freed slaves; passed by southern states following the Civil War
Civil Rights Act of 1866
Declared blacks as citizens of the US and gave fed govt power to intervene state affairs to protect citizens' rights. Johnson vetoed, but Congress overrode.
Impeachment of Johnson
Radicals believed Johnson was a major impediment to plans (1867). Impeached when Johnson dismissed Secretary of War Stanton despite Congress' refusal. However, 1868, he was acquitted.
Name for Southern white Republicans who supported Reconstruction and the Republican Party.
Name that Southerners gave to Northerners who moved to the South.
1872 campaign political scandals. Key members in Congress (including Grant's vice pres) accepted Crédit Mobilier stock. Second term, some officials operated "whiskey ring" & cheated govt out of taxes... Secretary of War accepted brides to retain Indian ring. Brought rampant corruption to govt.
Criticism when Seward accepted Russian offer to buy Alaska for $7.2 million. 1867, annexed Midway Islands. Expansion
Ku Klux Klan
A secret society created by white southerners in 1866 that used terror and violence to keep African Americans from obtaining their civil rights
(1870-1871) Congress in response to the KKK and others, passed these acts to protect black voters. It created penalties on person who interfered with any citizen's right to vote. Outlaws the activities of the KKK
Rutherford B. Hayes
1876 Republican nominee who was governor of ohio and champion of civil service reform. Won by 1 electoral vote, withdrew federal troops (letting Democrats take oer remaining Southern state govts), and hoped for a "new Republican"
Powerful, conservative oligarchy (Democrats...most of South fell under their control). Redeemers combined a defense of "home rule" and social conservatism
1890s 80% in South and majority victims were white. Whites controlled black population through terror and intimidation. Rise of lynching shocked white Americans.
Ida B. Wells
Committed black journalist who published series of impassioned articles after her friends were lynched. Launched international anti lynching movement (whites both North and South). Goal to punish those responsible for lynchings.
Democratic candidate for the U.S. presidency in the disputed election of 1876.
Election of 1876
Race for the presidency between Republican Rutherford B Hayes and Democrat Samuel J Tilden. Congress created a Special Electoral Commission consisting of 5 senators, 5 House Reps, and 5 justices from the Supreme court. Votes went 8-7 in favor of Hayes.
It was involved in a scandal in 1872 in which high government officials were accused of accepting bribes.
Secretary of War under Grant; was exposed to have pocketed some $24,000 by selling the privilege of disbursing supplies to the Indians; House voted unanimously to impeach him, but he resigned the same day, thus avoiding conviction by the Senate
Grant's personal assistant who cheated he government out of money to avoid paying taxes. involved in Whiskey Ring Scandal
During the Grant administration, a group of officials were importing whiskey and using their offices to avoid paying the taxes on it, cheating the treasury out of millions of dollars.
American financier and railroad developer who, along with James Fisk, attempted to corner the gold market in 1869
an American financier that was partnered with Jay Gould in tampering with the railroad stocks.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
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