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Nealk VA AP The Unfinished Nation Chapter 17
APUSH Key terms (with significance!)
Terms in this set (38)
Thomas A. Edison
(429) 1870s Invented the incandescent lamp (lightbulb). Improved generators and built large power plants to furnish electricity to cities. By turn of century, electric power became commonplace (revolutionary innovations)
(429-431) 1870s and 1880s steel production made strides toward eventual dominance in metals industry. Hewitt's open-hearth process led to great quantities and large dimensions of steel. West Penn and east Ohio. Demanded new fuel (industry growing fast)
(432) Frederick Winslow Taylor... "Scientific management" which industrialists embraced. Made human labor compatible with demands of the machine age and increased employers' control of workplace. Sped up production and made workers more interchangeable... Workers using modern machines could perform simple tasks at greater speed (higher productivity)
Henry Ford, Assembly line
(431,433) 1896 Produced first of famous cars...1917 almost 5 millions automobiles in America. Introduced moving assembly line for his automobile plants in 1914. Enabled him to raise wages and reduce hours while cutting base price of Model T (became a standard for other industries)
(435) Risked only the amount of their investments were not liable for any debts the corporation accumulated. Ability to sell stock to broad public allowed entrepreneurs to gain capital and undertake great projects.
Andrew Carnegie, U.S. Steel
(435) 1873 opened steelworks and soon dominated industry. Used stock to finance and created US Steel Corp ($14 billion enterprise controlling almost 2/3 of nation's steel production)
John D. Rockefeller, Standard Oil
(436) 1870 Formed Standard Oil Company of Ohio & soon acquired 20 of 25 refineries in Cleveland (started expanding horizontally)
By 1880s, he established great dominance within petroleum industry that he was the leading symbol of monopoly to nation.
Herbert Spencer, Social Darwinism
(437) Misapplication to human society of Charles Darwin's laws of evolution and natural selection among species. Believed only fittest individuals survived and flourished in the marketplace.
Herbert Spencer- first and most important... had prominent American intellectual supporters
Railroad Strike of 1877
(445) Began when eastern railroads had 10% wage ut and expanded into approaching class war. Strikers disrupted rail service, destroyed equipment, and rioted in Pittsburgh & other cities. Pres Hayes sent fed troops to suppress disorders. First major national labor conflict
Terence Powderly, Knights of Labor
(445,6) Founded in 1869 under Uriah Stephens. 8 hr workday and no child labor but more interested in long-range reform of economy. Wanted to replace "wage system" with new "cooperative system" which workers would themselves control workplaces, unionized African-Americans, women, and unskilled workers
Samuel Gompers, American Federation of Labor
(446) Powerful AFL leader. concentrated on wages, hours, and working conditions. Demanded national 8hr workday and called for general strike if goal was not achieved by May 1886 (strikes took place all over nation).
Henry Clay Frick, Homestead Strike
(447) 1890 Chief lieutenant... decided with Carnegie that Amalgamated "had to go." Cut wages at Homestead. Union knew it couldn't have successful strike. But 1892 Amalgamated called a stirke.
Eugene V. Debs
(448) American Railway Union leader. Defied fed court after issuing injunction forbidding union to continue strike... Arrested and imprisoned, and strike collapsed.
Alexander Graham Bell
(429) Developed first telephone with commercial capacity. 1900 had 1.35 million telephones and 1920 had 13.3 million. One of the most important innovations (shows rapidly emerging new technologies)
The Wright Brothers
(432) Wilbur and Orville Wright made successful airplane in 1903 NC. Continued improving, but aviation tech was slow in America. American airplanes became significant in Europe during World War I. Commercial flight came 1920s
(435) Combined number of firms engaged in same enterprise into a single corporation (like consolidation of different railroad lines into one company)
(435) Company took over all different businesses on which it relied for its primary function (Carnegie Steel came to control not only steel mills but mines, railroads, etc)
Combinations/ pools/ trusts/ corporate mergers
(436) Pool- informal agreements among various companies to stabilize rates and divide markets. Eventually collapsed.
Trust- stockholders transferred stocks to a trustees in exchange for share in the trust. Owners had no direct control over trustees' decisions (only received share of profits combination). Trustees might own few companies but had control over many.
Corp Mergers- Changed laws of incorporation to permit companies to buy rivals. "Trusts" became unnecessary.
Willaim Graham Sumner
(437) Promoted similar ideas (that society benefited from elimination of unit and survival of strong/talented) in lectures, articles, and 1906 book "Folkways"
"Gospel of Wealth"
(438) 1901 book by Andrew Carnegie saying people of wealth should consider all revenues in excess of their own needs "trust funds" to be used for good of community. Industrialists devoted large parts of fortunes to philanthropic works. (private wealth = public blessing)
(439) Famous promoter of success story... Started as minister of small town (had sexual scandals..lol) but moved to NY and wrote +100 novels all about "rags to riches," which captured aspirations of many men.
Socialist Labor Party
(441) Founded in 1870s & led by Daniel De Leon (West Indies immigrant). Never became a major political force... 1901 faction broke away to form American Socialist Party (stronger ties with organized labor)
Henry George, "Single Tax"
(441) California writer/activist. Replacing all other taxes, returning increment to people, destroying monopolies, eliminating poverty, and distributing wealth more equally
Progress and Poverty
(441) 1879 became one of the best-selling nonfiction works in American publishing history. Blamed social problems on ability of few monopolists to grow wealthy as a result of rising land values. Increase land value wasn't cause of owner but "unearned increment" by the growth of society around the land
Edward Bellamy, Looking Backward
(441) Utopian 1888 that described Bostonian who went to sleep in 1887 and in 2000 there was a new social order where want, politics, and vice were unknown. Single, great trust, controlled by the govt (distributed economy equally among everyone); he labeled it "nationalism"
Labor Contract Law
(443) Permitted industrial employers to pay for passage of workers in advance and deduct amount later from their wages. Repealed in 1885, but employers continued... heightened ethnic tensions within working class
(445) Militant labor organization which sometimes used violence/murdered in battle with coal operators. Instigated by informers and agents employed by mine owners who wanted to ruthlessly suppress unionization
(446) Strike at McCormick Harvester Co... police ordered crowd to disperse & someone threw a bomb, killing 7 policemen and injuring 67 others. Alarming symbol of social chaos and radicalism
(446) Public's code word for terrorism and violence, even though most part were relatively peaceful. Remained frightening concept in American imagination.
(447) Strikebreakers for enabling company to hire nonunion workers. Eventually surrendered and escorted out of town.
(447,8) 1894 Pullman Palace Car Co reduced wages by 25% without reduced rent charged. Workers went on strike and persuaded ARU to support them by refused to handle Pullman cars/equipment... strike stopped after Debs and his associated were arrested and imprisoned with support of President Clevekland
Homestead Strike (1892)
On June 29, 1892, workers belonging to the Amalgamated Association of Iron and Steel Workers struck the Carnegie Steel Company at Homestead, Pa. to protest a proposed wage cut. Henry C. Frick, the company's general manager, determined to break the union. He hired 300 Pinkerton detectives to protect the plant and strikebreakers. After an armed battle between the workers and the detectives, several men were killed or wounded, the governor called out the state militia. The Homestead strike led to a serious weakening of unionism in the steel industry until the 1930s.
A policy of favoring native-born individuals over foreign-born ones, anti-immigrant
immigrants who had come to the US before the 1880s from Britain, Germany, Ireland, and Scandinavia, or Northern Europe
immigrants who had come to the US after the 1880s from southern and eastern Europe
Interstate Commerce Act (1887)
1887 law passed to regulate railroad and other interstate businesses
Sherman Antitrust Act (1890)
1890 law banning any trust that restrained interstate trade or commerce
Sharecropper's Cycle of Poverty
1) freedmen left plantations with nothing but their freedom
2) most returned to where they lived in slavery
3) farmers received supplies on credit and couldn't pay what they borrowed with their harvest, so they lost their land and became sharecroppers and suffered from debt bondage
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