a) Airborne precautions are used to protect against droplet infections smaller than 5 mcg (measles, varicella, pulmonary or laryngeal tuberculosis). Airborne precaution require: (1) Private room; (2) Mask, respirators for providers and visitors; N95 or HEPA (high efficiency particulate air) respirator if patient is suspected to have TB; (3) Negative pressure airflow exchange in the room of at least six exchanges per hour.
b) Droplet precautions against droplet larger than 5 mcg (streptococcal pharyngitis or pneumonia, scarlet fever, rubella, pertussis, mumps, mycoplasma pneumonia, meningococcal pneumonia/sepsis, pneumonic plague). Droplet precautions require: (1) Private room or a room with other clients having the same infection; (2) Masks for providers and visitors
c) Contact precautions - protect visitors and caregivers against direct client/environmental contact infections (respiratory syncytial virus, shigella, enteric diseases caused by micro-organisms, wound infections, herpes simplex, scabies, multi-drug resistant organisms. Contact precautions require: (a) private room or room with other client with the same disease; (b) gloves and gown worn by caregivers and visitors; (c) disposal of infectious dressing material into a single, nonporous bag without touching the outside of the bag.