Understanding Social Life Final Exam
Terms in this set (54)
Sex vs Gender
sex: the biological diff. that distinguishes males fr. females
gender- social position, set of social arrangements that are built around normative sex categories
A gender role is a set of societal norms dictating the types of behaviors which are generally considered acceptable, appropriate, or desirable for people based on their actual or perceived sex or sexuality.
Gender Stereotypes Sexism
genders have specific roles attached to them ex: women in the kitchen --- this is their role and therefore seen as weaker (subordinate) from their male counterparts
system involving subordination of femininity to masculinity
Matriarchy is a social system in which females hold the primary power positions in roles of political leadership, moral authority, social privilege and control of property at the specific exclusion of men - at least to a large degree
a consiousness raising movement to get people to understand that gender is an organizing principle of life. the underlying belief is that women and men should be accorded equal opportunity and respect
refuse (a loan or insurance) to someone because they live in an area deemed to be a poor financial risk. (in the mid 20th century, this was done to mostly black communities)
the legal or social practice of separating people on the basis of their race or ethnicity
Drug prohibition law is prohibition-based law by which governments prohibit, except under licence, the production, supply, and possession of many, but not all, substances which are recognized as drugs
the policy or practice of opposing racism and promoting racial tolerance.
civil rights movement
The civil rights movement was a struggle by African Americans in the mid-1950s to late 1960s to achieve Civil Rights equal to those of whites, including equal opportunity in employment, housing, and education, as well as the right to vote, the right of equal access to public facilities, and the right to be free of racial discrimination.
Matrix of Domination
the different aspects of people's identities that contribute to privilege and/or discrimination
a group of people who share a set of characteristics- typically, but not always, physical ones- and are said to share a common bloodline
ones ethnic quality or affiliation. It is voluntary, self-definied, non hierarchical, fluid and multiple, and based on cultural differences, not physical ones per se
a large aggregate of people united by common descent, history, culture, or language, inhabiting a particular country or territory.
Social Construction of Race
externally imposed- someone else defines you
involuntary-put in category based on physical differences
Racism and Religion
since there was no mention on non whites in the bible, gave christians a moral excuse to be racist
Racism and Science
nineteenth century theories of race that characterize a period of feverish investigation into the origins, explanations, and classifications of race
Racisms (Know the difference between individual, institutional, cultural, and strategic)
institutional - institutions and social dynamics that may seem race neutral but actually put minority groups at a disadvantage
individual- (racism def)
cultural- when the beliefs of a cultural perpetuate racism
Racism and the economy
us built on the back of slaves, depends on cheap labor ---- (convict leasing , slavery, H2 and bracero programs)
Racism and the division of labor
cheap labor at bottom (look at invention of whiteness)
the invention of whiteness
indentured servants- both black and white (race didnt exist yet it was more of a class system --- poor vs rich) Poor begin to retaliate, rich white needed to make people fighting back a smaller group and found the commonality between themselves and the poor whites
White supremacy/ white privilege
Slavery and capitalism
depended on slavery (convict leasing / bracero programs) for our economy to thrive at the expense of the wellbeing of these individuals---- exploitation
period where former southern master class struggled to have power over newly emancipated, white supremacy linked to post civil war society through convict leasing, it's okay to work criminals--- begin to criminalize blacks to "rebuild the south" vast majority weren't even slave owners and act illiterate and poor whites use race to their advantage
state owns you rather than individual---- raw material fueleing the economy exploitation of racial slavery (controllable labor force) , run by a small portion of pop. in south who owned the majority of wealth, land and slaves
racism and the law
the laws enforced by pro-slavery southerners before and after civil war to limit freedom of slaves and freed slaves
jim crow laws
end of 19th century laws that enforced racial segregation
the laws that allowed for criminalization of large groups, particularly of black people
the action of coming to live permanently in a foreign country.
Chain migration is the social process by which immigrants from a particular town follow others from that town to a particular city or neighborhood, whether in an immigrant-receiving country or in a new, usually urban, location in the home country.
the emigration of highly trained or intelligent people from a particular country.
demand for immigrants
how the U.S messes up other societies in order to obtain cheap labor (low vs high skilled)
international trade left to its natural course without tariffs, quotas, or other restrictions.
A private prison or for-profit prison is a place in which individuals are physically confined or incarcerated by a third party that is contracted by a government agency.
education (functionalists vs. conflict perspectives)
functionalist: examine society in terms of how it is maintained for the common good. A functionalist will put an emphasis on positive aspects of schools such as socialisation: the learning of skills and attitudes in school
conflict: Conflict theory sees the purpose of education as maintaining social inequality and preserving the power of those who dominate society.
theories of collective action
convergence theory- collective action happens when people with similar ideas and tendencies gather in the same place
contagion theory- collective action arises because of people's tendency to conform to the behavior of others with whom they are in close contact
emergent norm theory- theory of collective action emphasizing the influence of keynotes in promoting new behavioral norms
Social change refers to any significant alteration over time in behavior patterns and cultural values and norms. By "significant" alteration, sociologists mean changes yielding profound social consequences.
collective behavior that is purposeful, organized, and institutionalized but not ritualized
types of social movements
1) Alternative- seek the most limited societal change and often target a narrow group of people
2)Redemptive- target specific groups but advocate for more radical change in behavior
3)Reformative- advocate for limited social change across entire society
4) Revolutionary- advocate the radical reorganization of society
occupy wall street movement
Occupy Wall Street (OWS) was a protest movement that began on September 17, 2011, in Zuccotti Park, located in New York City's Wall Street financial district, receiving global attention and spawning the movement against economic inequality worldwide. (99% movement-- education, economics, didn't hone in on one issue)
education and inequality (Class, race, and gender)
action that takes place in groups and diverges from the social norms of the situation
NAFTA and Mexico
north american free trade agreement screwed over mexicans
the action of deporting a foreigner from a country.3
push and pull factors
political/ economic factors (collapse of economy- loss of jobs) "push out of communities- uproot"
more job opportunities
more stability, life isn't threatened
a policy of extending a country's power and influence through diplomacy or military force. (Think empire)
Migrants to foreign countries who take up unskilled jobs despite having professional qualifications are called, by economists, brain waste.
theories of immigration
1) Neo classical- means of survival
2) contemporary economic theory- has to do with community (not individual decision to immigrate)
segmented labor theory
split labor market--> citizen vs immigrant, primary vs secondary
ubstantial increase in the number of incarcerated people in the United States' prisons over the past forty years.
aka indentured servitude
racial violence/ white terrorism
class origins of racial hatred in the U.S. KKK founded and spread across the south, terrorist organizations opposed by Southern reconstruction, mission was to suppress the mobility of black life
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