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Chapter 4
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Gravity
Terms in this set (21)
Multiplier
The number you can multiply by in order to increase or decrease an amount. Also known as the scale factor.
Scale Factor
A ratio that compares the sizes of the parts of one figure or object to the sizes of the corresponding parts of a similar figure or object. Also called the multiplier.
Corresponding
Points, sides, edges, or angles in two or more figures that are images of each other with respect to a transformation. If two figures are congruent, then these parts of the figures are congruent to each other.
Commutative Property of Addition
When two numbers or variables are combined using addition, the order in which they are added does not matter. For example, 7 + 5 = 5 + 7.
Commutative Property of Multiplication
When two numbers are multiplied together, the order in which they are multiplied does not matter. For example, 5 · 10 = 10 · 5.
Associative Property of Addition
This property tells you that the order in which the numbers are added together does not matter. The answer to the problem (7 + 5) + 9, for example, is the same as 7 + (5 + 9).
Associative Property of Multiplication
When three numbers are multiplied together, which pair of numbers are multiplied together first does not matter. For example, (5 · (−6)) · 10 is the sames as 5 · (−6 · 10).
Distributive Property
For any a, b, and c, a(b + c) = ab + ac.
For example, 10(7 + 2) = 10 · 7 + 10 · 2.
Scale Drawing
A drawing that shows a real object with accurate sizes except they have all been reduced or enlarged by a certain amount called the scale factor.
Similar figures
Have the same shape but are not necessarily the same size. For example, the three triangles below are an example of this word.
Scale
The ratio between a length of the representation (such as a map, model, or diagram) and the corresponding length of the actual object. For example, a map of a country may use one inch to represent 30 miles.
Proportional Relationship
When two values increase or decrease by the same scale factor.
Unit rate
A proportion with a denominator of 1 when simplified.
Constant of Proportionality
In a proportional relationship equation in the form y = kx, this word is the k. In other words, this word is how much you multiply the x unit to get the y unit.⁺
Rate
A ratio that compares, by division, the amount one quantity changes as another quantity changes.
Variable
A symbol used to represent one or more numbers, such as n, x, m, a or any letter of the English alphabet.
Term
A single number, variable, or the product of numbers and variables, such as -45, 1.2x, and 3xy2.
Combine Like-Terms
Simplifying an expression by combining constants and combining similar variable terms that are raised to the same power. For example, 3x + 5x = 8x.
Evaluate
To find the answer or numerical value of.
Constant Term
A number that is not multiplied by a variable. In the expression 2x + 3(5 − 2x) + 8, the number 8 is an example of this.
Like-terms
Terms with the same variable(s), with the corresponding variable(s) raised to the same power, such as 5a and 8a.
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