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38 terms

microbiology chapter 11

Which of the following microbial forms have the highest resistance to physical and chemical controls?
A. Yeast
B. Protozoan cysts
C. Fungal spores
D. Naked virus
E. Bacterial endospores
Bacterial Endospores
The process that destroys or removes all microorganisms and microbial forms including bacterial endospores on inanimate objects is
A. Sterilization
B. Disinfection
C. Degermination
D. Sanitation
E. Antisepsis
The process of using a cleansing technique to mechanically remove and reduce microorganisms and debris to safe levels is
A. Disinfection
B. Sterilization
C. Degermination
D. Sanitation
E. Antisepsis
Scrubbing or immersing the skin in chemicals to reduce the numbers of microbes on the skin is
A. Sanitation
B. Degermination
C. Sterilization
D. Antisepsis
E. Disinfection
The easiest microbial forms to kill or inhibit are
A. Mycobacteria and staphylococci
B. Vegetative bacteria and fungi
C. Protozoan cysts
D. Endospores
E. Naked viruses
Vegetative bacteria and fungi
The method of removing vegetative life forms from living surfaces is termed
A. Fegerming
B. Decontamination
C. Disinfection
D. Antisepsis
E. Sterilization
The alcohol wipe before an injection is an example of
A. Antisepsis
B. Disinfection
C. Decontamination
D. Sterilization
E. Degerming
Surfactants work by
A. Blocking transport out from the organism
B. All of the choices are correct
C. Coating the organism preventing interaction with its environment
D. Disrupting membrane integrity
E. Blocking transport into the organism
Disrupting membrane integrity
Some microbial control agents are able to _____ cell proteins by breaking bonds that maintain the native state, three-dimensional configuration of the proteins.
A. Bind
B. Dissolve
C. All of the choices are correct
D. Denature
Which of the following does not affect microbial nucleic acids?
A. Formaldehyde
B. Ethylene dioxide
C. X-rays
D. Moist heat
E. Ultra violet light
moist heat
Dry heat
A. Is less efficient than moist heat
B. Cannot sterilize
C. Is used in devices called autoclaves
D. Includes tyndallization
E. Will sterilize at 121° C for 15 minutes
Is less efficient than moist heat
Disinfection of beverages such as apple juice, milk and wine is optimally achieved by
A. Moist heat autoclave
B. Filtration
C. Boiling water
D. Chlorination
E. Pasteurization
Placing organisms at 4o C is
A. None of the choices are correct
B. Bacteriostatic
C. Decontamination
D. Bacteriocidal
E. Sterilization
_____ heat is more rapidly effective and efficient compared to _____ heat.
A. Dry, moist
B. Moist, dry
C. High, moist
D. Moist, high
E. High, dry
Moist, dry
What instrument is most effective for pressure-temperature sterilization?
A. Bunsen burner
B. Autoclave
C. Oven
D. Water bath
E. Incubator
Intermittent sterilization, which uses three days of lower temperature steam for short periods of time is also called
A. Dessication
B. Disinfection
C. Pasteurization
D. Incubation
E. Tyndallization
Removal of moisture by dehydration is called
A. Pasteurization
B. Sterilization
C. Desiccation
D. Flash freeze
E. Lyophilization
_____ radiation excites atoms to a higher energy state within molecules such as DNA that then leads to the formation of pyrimidine dimers.
A. Particle
B. Ultraviolet
C. Gamma
D. Infra red
E. Ionizing
Place the following forms of radiation in order from the most penetrating to the least penetrating
A. Gamma, Cathode, X-rays
B. X-ray, Gamma, Cathode
C. Cathode, X-ray, Gamma
D. Gamma, X-rays, Cathode
E. Cathode, Gamma, X-ray
Gamma, X-rays, Cathode
_____ is a control method that removes microorganisms rather than inhibiting or killing them.
A. Sterilization
B. Radiation
C. Disinfection
D. Filtration
E. Boiling
Which of the following is not a factor that affects germicidal activity?
A. The material being treated
B. The length of exposure
C. The microorganism being treated
D. All of these are factors
E. The strength of the germicide
All of these are factors
Iodophors include
A. Chloramines
B. Alcohols
C. Chlorhexidine
D. Tincture of iodine
E. Betadine
The compound that is an organic base containing chlorine and two phenolic rings and is used increasingly for wound degerming, neonatal washes, hand scrubbing and prepping surgical skin sites is
A. Quarternary ammonium compounds
B. Carbolic acid
C. Chlorhexidine
D. Triclosan
E. Formalin
The chemical agent that produces highly reactive hydroxyl-free radicals and also decomposes to O2 gas is
A. Chlorhexidine
B. Iodophors
C. Cidex
D. Hydrogen peroxide
E. Cationic detergents
Hydrogen peroxide
The use of a physical or chemical process to destroy vegetative pathogens is
A. Disinfection
B. Sterilization
C. Antisepsis
D. Sanitation
E. Degermination
Which of the following factors will influence the action of microbial agents?
A. The number of microorganisms
B. Mode and dosage of the agent
C. Temperature and pH
D. The kind of microorganisms
E. All of these will influence the action
All of these will influence the action
Microbial death occurs when there is
A. A change in appearance
B. All of these occur
C. A decrease in size
D. No reproduction
E. No movement
No reproduction
Each of the following is the target of antimicrobial agents except
A. Cell walls
B. Cytoplasm
C. Ribosomes
D. Cellular proteins
E. Cell membranes
Physical agents for controlling microbial growth include all the following except
A. Ultraviolet radiation
B. Pasteurization
C. Boiling water
D. HEPA filters
E. Hydrogen peroxide
Hydrogen peroxide
Sterilization is achieved by
A. Flash pasteurization
B. Boiling water
C. Steam autoclave
D. Hot water
E. All of the choices are correct
Steam autoclave
The shortest time required to kill all the microbes in a sample at a specified temperature is called the
A. Thermal death time (TDT)
B. None of the choices are correct
C. Sporicidal time
D. Death phase point
E. Thermal death point (TDP)
Thermal death time (TDT)
The lowest temperature needed to kill all microbes in 10 minutes is the
A. Thermal death point (TDP)
B. Thermal death time (TDT)
C. Death phase point
D. Sporicidal time
E. None of the choices are correct
Thermal death point (TDP)
Which of the following is not a primary target of milk pasteurization?
A. Brucella
B. Lactobacilli
C. Campylobacter jejuni
D. Listeria monocytogenes
E. Salmonella
_____ solution was introduced in the late nineteenth century for preventing gonococcal infections in a newborn's eyes after exposure to the mother's infected birth canal.
A. Silver nitrate
B. Betadine
C. Triclosan
D. Zinc oxide
E. Merthiolate
Silver nitrate
Antimicrobial agents can target the cell wall by:
A. Denaturing proteins
B. Digesting it
C. Blocking its synthesis
D. All of these
All of these
The sterilizing gas used in chemiclaves is
A. Iodophor
B. Formaldehyde
C. Ethylene oxide
D. Chlorine dioxide
E. Glutaraldehyde
Ethylene oxide
In lab inoculating loops are sterilized using:
A. Moist heat
B. Chemicals
C. Filtration
D. Incineration
All of the following are alkylating control agents except
A. Iodophor
B. Glutaraldehyde
C. Formaldehyde
D. Ethylene oxide
E. Propylene oxide