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Which of the following microbial forms have the highest resistance to physical and chemical controls?
A. Yeast
B. Protozoan cysts
C. Fungal spores
D. Naked virus
E. Bacterial endospores

Bacterial Endospores

The process that destroys or removes all microorganisms and microbial forms including bacterial endospores on inanimate objects is
A. Sterilization
B. Disinfection
C. Degermination
D. Sanitation
E. Antisepsis


The process of using a cleansing technique to mechanically remove and reduce microorganisms and debris to safe levels is
A. Disinfection
B. Sterilization
C. Degermination
D. Sanitation
E. Antisepsis


Scrubbing or immersing the skin in chemicals to reduce the numbers of microbes on the skin is
A. Sanitation
B. Degermination
C. Sterilization
D. Antisepsis
E. Disinfection


The easiest microbial forms to kill or inhibit are
A. Mycobacteria and staphylococci
B. Vegetative bacteria and fungi
C. Protozoan cysts
D. Endospores
E. Naked viruses

Vegetative bacteria and fungi

The method of removing vegetative life forms from living surfaces is termed
A. Fegerming
B. Decontamination
C. Disinfection
D. Antisepsis
E. Sterilization


The alcohol wipe before an injection is an example of
A. Antisepsis
B. Disinfection
C. Decontamination
D. Sterilization
E. Degerming


Surfactants work by
A. Blocking transport out from the organism
B. All of the choices are correct
C. Coating the organism preventing interaction with its environment
D. Disrupting membrane integrity
E. Blocking transport into the organism

Disrupting membrane integrity

Some microbial control agents are able to _____ cell proteins by breaking bonds that maintain the native state, three-dimensional configuration of the proteins.
A. Bind
B. Dissolve
C. All of the choices are correct
D. Denature


Which of the following does not affect microbial nucleic acids?
A. Formaldehyde
B. Ethylene dioxide
C. X-rays
D. Moist heat
E. Ultra violet light

moist heat

Dry heat
A. Is less efficient than moist heat
B. Cannot sterilize
C. Is used in devices called autoclaves
D. Includes tyndallization
E. Will sterilize at 121° C for 15 minutes

Is less efficient than moist heat

Disinfection of beverages such as apple juice, milk and wine is optimally achieved by
A. Moist heat autoclave
B. Filtration
C. Boiling water
D. Chlorination
E. Pasteurization


Placing organisms at 4o C is
A. None of the choices are correct
B. Bacteriostatic
C. Decontamination
D. Bacteriocidal
E. Sterilization


_____ heat is more rapidly effective and efficient compared to _____ heat.
A. Dry, moist
B. Moist, dry
C. High, moist
D. Moist, high
E. High, dry

Moist, dry

What instrument is most effective for pressure-temperature sterilization?
A. Bunsen burner
B. Autoclave
C. Oven
D. Water bath
E. Incubator


Intermittent sterilization, which uses three days of lower temperature steam for short periods of time is also called
A. Dessication
B. Disinfection
C. Pasteurization
D. Incubation
E. Tyndallization


Removal of moisture by dehydration is called
A. Pasteurization
B. Sterilization
C. Desiccation
D. Flash freeze
E. Lyophilization


_____ radiation excites atoms to a higher energy state within molecules such as DNA that then leads to the formation of pyrimidine dimers.
A. Particle
B. Ultraviolet
C. Gamma
D. Infra red
E. Ionizing


Place the following forms of radiation in order from the most penetrating to the least penetrating
A. Gamma, Cathode, X-rays
B. X-ray, Gamma, Cathode
C. Cathode, X-ray, Gamma
D. Gamma, X-rays, Cathode
E. Cathode, Gamma, X-ray

Gamma, X-rays, Cathode

_____ is a control method that removes microorganisms rather than inhibiting or killing them.
A. Sterilization
B. Radiation
C. Disinfection
D. Filtration
E. Boiling


Which of the following is not a factor that affects germicidal activity?
A. The material being treated
B. The length of exposure
C. The microorganism being treated
D. All of these are factors
E. The strength of the germicide

All of these are factors

Iodophors include
A. Chloramines
B. Alcohols
C. Chlorhexidine
D. Tincture of iodine
E. Betadine


The compound that is an organic base containing chlorine and two phenolic rings and is used increasingly for wound degerming, neonatal washes, hand scrubbing and prepping surgical skin sites is
A. Quarternary ammonium compounds
B. Carbolic acid
C. Chlorhexidine
D. Triclosan
E. Formalin


The chemical agent that produces highly reactive hydroxyl-free radicals and also decomposes to O2 gas is
A. Chlorhexidine
B. Iodophors
C. Cidex
D. Hydrogen peroxide
E. Cationic detergents

Hydrogen peroxide

The use of a physical or chemical process to destroy vegetative pathogens is
A. Disinfection
B. Sterilization
C. Antisepsis
D. Sanitation
E. Degermination


Which of the following factors will influence the action of microbial agents?
A. The number of microorganisms
B. Mode and dosage of the agent
C. Temperature and pH
D. The kind of microorganisms
E. All of these will influence the action

All of these will influence the action

Microbial death occurs when there is
A. A change in appearance
B. All of these occur
C. A decrease in size
D. No reproduction
E. No movement

No reproduction

Each of the following is the target of antimicrobial agents except
A. Cell walls
B. Cytoplasm
C. Ribosomes
D. Cellular proteins
E. Cell membranes


Physical agents for controlling microbial growth include all the following except
A. Ultraviolet radiation
B. Pasteurization
C. Boiling water
D. HEPA filters
E. Hydrogen peroxide

Hydrogen peroxide

Sterilization is achieved by
A. Flash pasteurization
B. Boiling water
C. Steam autoclave
D. Hot water
E. All of the choices are correct

Steam autoclave

The shortest time required to kill all the microbes in a sample at a specified temperature is called the
A. Thermal death time (TDT)
B. None of the choices are correct
C. Sporicidal time
D. Death phase point
E. Thermal death point (TDP)

Thermal death time (TDT)

The lowest temperature needed to kill all microbes in 10 minutes is the
A. Thermal death point (TDP)
B. Thermal death time (TDT)
C. Death phase point
D. Sporicidal time
E. None of the choices are correct

Thermal death point (TDP)

Which of the following is not a primary target of milk pasteurization?
A. Brucella
B. Lactobacilli
C. Campylobacter jejuni
D. Listeria monocytogenes
E. Salmonella


_____ solution was introduced in the late nineteenth century for preventing gonococcal infections in a newborn's eyes after exposure to the mother's infected birth canal.
A. Silver nitrate
B. Betadine
C. Triclosan
D. Zinc oxide
E. Merthiolate

Silver nitrate

Antimicrobial agents can target the cell wall by:
A. Denaturing proteins
B. Digesting it
C. Blocking its synthesis
D. All of these

All of these

The sterilizing gas used in chemiclaves is
A. Iodophor
B. Formaldehyde
C. Ethylene oxide
D. Chlorine dioxide
E. Glutaraldehyde

Ethylene oxide

In lab inoculating loops are sterilized using:
A. Moist heat
B. Chemicals
C. Filtration
D. Incineration


All of the following are alkylating control agents except
A. Iodophor
B. Glutaraldehyde
C. Formaldehyde
D. Ethylene oxide
E. Propylene oxide


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