35 terms

Open-ended questions

the respondent is asked to provide his or her own answers

Closed-Ended Questions

the respondent is asked to select an answer from among a list provided by the researcher

Exhaustiveness

include all possible responses that might be expected

Mutually Exclusive

the respondent should be feel compelled to select more than one answer

Likert Scales

respondents are asked whether they strongly agree, agree, disagree, or strongly

disagree.

disagree.

Double Barreled Questions

when a single answer is expected for a combination question

Contingency Questions

when certain questions are relevant t only some of the respondents and irrelevant to others.

Screening Questions

a question used to filter subsequent questioning

Matrix Questions

when several questions have the same answer set categories

Response Sets

when the respondent develops a pattern of responding without

Specialized interviewing

Focuses on the views and opinions of only those individuals who are interviewed, and frequently uses more flexible interview methods

Focus Groups

8-15 people are brought together in a room to engage in a guided group discussion of

some topic

some topic

Sampling

the process for selecting observations

Representativeness

when aggregate characteristics of the sample closely approximate those same aggregate characteristics in the population

Probability Sampling

a sample will be representative of the population from which it is selected if all members of the population have an equal chance of being selected in the sample

Probability Theory

inferences about how sampled data are distributed around the value found in a larger population

Sample Element

the unit about which information is collected and that provides the basis of analysis

Population

the theoretically specified grouping of study elements

Population Parameter

the value for a given variable in a population

Sample Statistics

estimates of population parameters

Sampling purpose

to select a set of elements from the population in such a way thatdescriptions of those elements accurately portray the parameters of the total

population from which the elements are selected

population from which the elements are selected

Random Selection

each element has an equal chance of being selected independent of any other event in the selection process

Sampling Distribution

the range of samples statistics we would obtain if we drew a very large number of samples from a single population

Confidence Level

the estimated probability that a parameter is within a specified confidence interval

Confidence Interval

The range of values that include a population parameter

Sampling Frame

the list of elements from which a probability sample is selected. It represents how the researcher is going to represents the target population

Simple Random Sampling

produced by assigning a single number to each element in the frame, not kipping any number in the process.

Systematic Sampling

a fraction of units in the list are selected for inclusion in the sample

Stratification

a method for obtaining a greater degree of representativeness

Disproportionate Stratified Sampling

purposively produced samples that are not

representative of a population on some variable

representative of a population on some variable

Cluster Sampling

multistage sampling in which natural groups (clusters) are sampled initially, with the members of each selected group being subsampled afterwards

Purposive Sampling

sample on the basis of our own knowledge of the population, its elements and the nature of our research aims

Quota Sampling

units are selected into the sampled based on prespecified characteristics so that the total sample will have the same distribution of characteristics as are assumed to exist in the population being studied

Convenience Sampling

available subjects are useful for pretesting questionnaires but should not be used for a study population as a whole

Snowball Sampling

begins by identifying a single subject or small number of subjects and then asks the subject(s) to identify others like him or her who might be willing to participate in

a study

a study