Class 8: Sampling & Survey Research

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Terms in this set (...)

Open-ended questions
the respondent is asked to provide his or her own answers
Closed-Ended Questions
the respondent is asked to select an answer from among a list provided by the researcher
Exhaustiveness
include all possible responses that might be expected
Mutually Exclusive
the respondent should be feel compelled to select more than one answer
Likert Scales
respondents are asked whether they strongly agree, agree, disagree, or strongly
disagree.
Double Barreled Questions
when a single answer is expected for a combination question
Contingency Questions
when certain questions are relevant t only some of the respondents and irrelevant to others.
Screening Questions
a question used to filter subsequent questioning
Matrix Questions
when several questions have the same answer set categories
Response Sets
when the respondent develops a pattern of responding without
Specialized interviewing
Focuses on the views and opinions of only those individuals who are interviewed, and frequently uses more flexible interview methods
Focus Groups
8-15 people are brought together in a room to engage in a guided group discussion of
some topic
Sampling
the process for selecting observations
Representativeness
when aggregate characteristics of the sample closely approximate those same aggregate characteristics in the population
Probability Sampling
a sample will be representative of the population from which it is selected if all members of the population have an equal chance of being selected in the sample
Probability Theory
inferences about how sampled data are distributed around the value found in a larger population
Sample Element
the unit about which information is collected and that provides the basis of analysis
Population
the theoretically specified grouping of study elements
Population Parameter
the value for a given variable in a population
Sample Statistics
estimates of population parameters
Sampling purpose
to select a set of elements from the population in such a way thatdescriptions of those elements accurately portray the parameters of the total
population from which the elements are selected
Random Selection
each element has an equal chance of being selected independent of any other event in the selection process
Sampling Distribution
the range of samples statistics we would obtain if we drew a very large number of samples from a single population
Confidence Level
the estimated probability that a parameter is within a specified confidence interval
Confidence Interval
The range of values that include a population parameter
Sampling Frame
the list of elements from which a probability sample is selected. It represents how the researcher is going to represents the target population
Simple Random Sampling
produced by assigning a single number to each element in the frame, not kipping any number in the process.
Systematic Sampling
a fraction of units in the list are selected for inclusion in the sample
Stratification
a method for obtaining a greater degree of representativeness
Disproportionate Stratified Sampling
purposively produced samples that are not
representative of a population on some variable
Cluster Sampling
multistage sampling in which natural groups (clusters) are sampled initially, with the members of each selected group being subsampled afterwards
Purposive Sampling
sample on the basis of our own knowledge of the population, its elements and the nature of our research aims
Quota Sampling
units are selected into the sampled based on prespecified characteristics so that the total sample will have the same distribution of characteristics as are assumed to exist in the population being studied
Convenience Sampling
available subjects are useful for pretesting questionnaires but should not be used for a study population as a whole
Snowball Sampling
begins by identifying a single subject or small number of subjects and then asks the subject(s) to identify others like him or her who might be willing to participate in
a study