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Ch 22 Respiratory System

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which of the following is not a function of the respiratory system
it assists in the synthesis of vasodilators
the upper respiratory tract extends
from the nose through the larynx
the nose is divided into right and left halves termed the
nasal fossae
which 2 ligaments extend from the thyroid cartilage to the arytenoids cartilages?
vestibular and vocal ligaments
one benefit from air passing by the turbinates is
the lower respiratory system remains humidified
the most numerous cells in the lungs are called
dust cells
each alveolus is surrounded by a basket of blood capillaries supplied by
the pulmonary artery
which of the following does not have cilia
respiratory bronchioles
what is the basic distinction between an alveolar duct and an alveolar atrium
their shape
which is more prominent in males than females?
1
this structure is about 5 cm long and slightly narrower and more horizontal than the one on the opposite side
4
although the heart is not included in this illustration, its apex would lie at point
7
compared to any other point on this figure, the highest ventilation perfusion ratio would be found at point
3
structure 2 is the
cricoid cartilage
there is a total of 5 of these structures in the respiratory system
6 and 8
crude sounds are formed into intelligible speech by all of the following except
epiglottis
which of the following cartilages is largest
thyroid cartilage
the valsalva maneuver can assist in diagnosing a hernia by
decreasing intra-abdominal pressure
__ states that the total pressure of a gas mixture is equal to the sum of the partial pressure of its individual gases
dalton's law
in a healthy person, which of the following will have the greatest influence on resistance to pulmonary airflow
bronchiole diameter
the amount of air in excess of tidal volume that can be inhaled with maximum effort is called
inspiratory reserve volume
vital capacity consists of
expiratory reserve volume + tidal volume + inspiratory reserve volume
deep, rapid breathing often seen in terminal diabetes mellitus is known as what
mussmaul respiration
a gangrenous diabetic ulcer can be treated with which of the following
hyperbaric oxygen
CO2 is transported by all the following means except
carbonate
tom is in respiratory arrest due to an electrical shock why does a good samaritan have up to 4-5 minutes to begin CPR and save toms life?
a venous reserve of oxygen in toms blood
during exercise, which of the following directly increases respiratory rate
anticipation of the needs of exercising muscle
which of the following would slow down gas exchange between the blood and alveolar air?
increase in membrane thickness
the addition of co2 to the blood generates __ ions in the RBCs which in turn stimulates RBCs to unload more oxygen
hydrogen
which of the following has no effect on oxyhemoglobin dissociation
erythrocyte count
which has the highest concentration in the air we breathe
nitrogen
each hemoglobin molecule can transport up to __ oxygen molecules
4
normally the systemic arterial blood has PO2 of__ mm Hg and PCO2 of ___ mm Hg and pH of __
95, 40, 7.4
which of the following enzymes in an RBC breaks H2CO3 down to water and CO2
carbonic anhydrase
in one passage through a bed of systemic blood capillaries, the blood gives up about what % of its oxygen
20-25
which of the following is the term for a deficiency of oxygen or the inability to utilize oxygen in a tissue
hypoxia
congestive heart failure results in which of the following
ischemic hypoxia
__ is a lung disease marked by a reduced number of cilia, reduced motility of the remaining cilia, goblet cell hypertrophy and hypersecretion, and thick sputum
chronic bronchitis
which of the following would lead to anemic hypoxia
sickle-cell disease
a lung disease marked by abnormally few but large alveoli is
emphysema
in ___, the lungs are infected with Mycobacterium and produce fibrous nodules around the bacteria, leading to progressive pulmonary fibrosis
tuberculosis
which malignancy originates in the lamina propria of the bronchi
adenocarcinoma
polio can sometimes damage the brainstem respiratory centers and result in
Ondine's curse
which of these is most likely to result from contact between contaminated finger and the nasal mucosa
acute rhinitis
scuba divers breathe a nitrogen-oxygen mixture rather than compressed oxygen in order to avoid
oxygen toxicity
nitrogen bubbles can form in the blood and tissues when a scuba diver ascends too rapidly, producting a syndrome called
cerebral embolism
the vagus and glossopharyngeal nerves carry afferent signals from peripheral chemoreceptors to a chemosensitive area in
medulla oblongata
mucus plays an important role in cleansing inhaled air. it is produced by __ of the respiratory tract
goblet cells
the blood transports more CO2 in the form of __ than in any other form
bicarbonate ions
among its other purposes, the Valsalva maneuver is used
to aid in defecation and urination
blood banks dispose of blood that has low levels of bisphosphoglycerate. What would be the probable reason for doing so?
Erythrocytes low in BPG do not unload O2 very well
Your breathing rate is 12 breaths/minute; your tidal volume is 500 mL; your vital capacity is 4700 mL; and your dead air space is 150 mL. Your alveolar ventilation rate is ___ mL/min.
42000 ?
Your breathing rate is 14 breaths/minute; spirometric measurements reveal your tidal volume is 500 mL; your inspiratory reserve volume is 3000 mL; and your expiratory reserve volume is 1,200 mL. Your vital capacity is ____ mL.
47000 ?