66 terms

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low
organic compound melting point?
low
organic compound boiling point?
high
organic compounds flammability high or low?
no
are organic compounds soluble in water?
elements in organic compounds
C and H
sometimes O S P CL F BR I
molecules
what kind of particles seen in organic compounds?
covalent
what type of bonding in organic compounds?
nonpolar
are organic compounds polar or non polar?
cis
same side
trans
opposite side
benzene
enclosed structure with a circle in the middle
aromatic
toluene
type of benzene
aromatic
aniline
type of benzene
aromatic
phenol
type of benzene
aromatic
hydrogenation
adding hydrogen to the carbon chain
hydration
adding a hydrogen and and OH
alcohol
-ol
insoluble
if an alcohol has 5+ carbons is it soluble or insoluble in water?
slightly soluble
if an alcohol has 4 carbons is it soluble or insoluble in water?
soluble
if an alcohol has 3 or less carbons is it soluble or insoluble in water?
aldehyde
ending in -al
oxidation of alcohols
the bonds grow (single to double to triple)
reduction of alcohols
the bonds shrink (triple to double to single)
tollens
the test that adds Ag
benedicts
the test that adds Cu
carbohydrates
source of energy
made from C H O
also known as saccharides (sugars)
glucose
produced by photosynthesis in pants
synthesized in plants
oxidized in humans
monosaccharides
3-8 carbon chains with one carbon in a carboxyl group
if it contains a aldehyde=aldoses
if it contains ketone=ketoses
aldotetrose
d-glucose
fruits,corn syrup, honey
known as dextrose and blood sugar in the body
aldohexose C6H12O2
d-fructose
obtained from sucrose
ketoheose c6h12O6
sweetest carbohydrate
d-galactose
aldohexose c6h12o6
not in free nature
from lactose
dissacharide
2 monosacchrides
form when 2 monos combine in dehydration
maltose
glucose+glucose
lactose
glucose+galactose
sucrose
glucose+fructose
ether bond
a glycosidic bond between 2 monosaccharides can also be classifed as a
lack the necessary enzyme to digest b-glycosides
why can humans digest cellulose
amylose
20% starch
straight chain polymer
amylopectin
80% starch
branched chain
glycogen
animal starch
hydrolysized in our cells
stored in liver and muscles of animals
highly branched
cellulose
structural material in woods and plants
long unbranched chains
insoluble in water
humans cant digest
maltose
malt suger
lactose
milk sugar
sucrose
table sugar
difference between ketones and aldehydes
what does tollens test tell you?
carboyxlic acid
carboxyl group with an hydroxyl (OH) attach to carbonyl (c double bonded to O) group
very
are carboxylic acids polar?
no
are carboxylic acids strong acids?
esters
synthesized from a reduction of a carboxyl acid and alcohol
fats and olds
aroma and flavor of bananas, oranges, strawberries
amines
derivatives of ammonia
contain N attached to 1 or more alkyl groups or aromatic groups
simple amines
alkylamines
aromatic amines
anilines-dyes
hydroxyl
functional group of -OH
carboxyl
functional group of OH-c=o (at the end of a chain)
alkaloids
physiologically active amines that are produced in plants are called
bases
amines react as ______ in water
carboxylic acid
oxidation of aldehydes creates
alcohol
reduction of aldehyde creates
carbonyl
functional group of aldehydes and ketones
addition
the reaction of hydrogen with propen use pt catalyst is called
loss of hydrogen
in the oxidation of an alcohol to a ketone, there is:
chemical reactions of alcohols
dehydration
combustion
oxidation
reduction
disulfide bond
oxidaton of thiols result as
functional group
always number closest to the ______ not the substituent
high melting point
which of the follow in not typical of most hydrocarbons?
high melting point
poor solubility
low boiling
covalent bond
high flammable