Study sets, textbooks, questions
Upgrade to remove ads
Management Exam #3
Terms in this set (30)
step 1: a problem or opportunity is defined
step 2: objectives and goals are identified
step 3: objectives are weighted according to the importance of each
step 4: possible courses of action or alternatives are considered
step 5: each objective is rated according to how well it will achieve the desired course of action
step 6: the optimal decision is chosen.
what are the 6 steps of the rational decision-making process
step 1: problem is defined
step 6: optimal decision is chosen
In particular, what are steps 1 & 6 of the decision-making process?
1. bounded rationality: constraints that restrict rational decision making (time, resources, information)
2. satisficing : choosing a solution that meets some minimum qualifications, one that is "good enough"
this model is based on the fact that managers must often make decisions based on sub-optimal amounts of information
what are the two factors of simon's normative model? what is this model based on?
the garbage can model shows how decision making can be sloppy and haphazard and that decisions result from a complex interaction of four streams of events: problems, solutions, participants, choice opportunities
-non-critical thinking decision making
what is the garbage can model?
cognitive heuristics: rules of thumb or short-cuts that individuals use to save time when making complex decisions
availability heuristic: individuals assess the frequency/probability/ likely cause of an event by the degree to which instances or occurrences of that event are readily available in memory
representativeness heuristic: people look for traits in another person or situation that corresponds with previously formed stereotypes
adjustment heuristic: people make estimates/choices based on a certain starting point-- tend to cling to first impressions
framing: alternative wordings for same information that significantly alters a decision - preferring to base a decision on the upside vs. down side-- degree to which a person percieves risk or benefit
how do biases impact decision making? (8 total)
1. status quo: tendency to favor the "here and now" and to reject potential change
2. Escalation of Commitment: decision makers commit themselves to a particular course of action beyond the level suggested by rationality as a means of justifying previous commitments
3. subconciously making a decision before due diligence
what are the biases that are the three aspects of emotional commitment?
knowledge gained from experience
what is intuition?
-information gained through experience that is difficult to express and formalize
-intuition acquired by learning from experience
-develops your gut
Explicit: tangible ,
-information that can be easily put into words and shared with others
-shared orally or written in reports
whats the difference between tacit knowledge and explicit knowledge?
what is the decision making styles square look like?
-serves organizations interests
-also referred to as constructive or cooperative conflict
-threatens organizations interests
-a simmering conflict can be defused in a functional manner or driven to destructing proportions
what is the difference between functional conflict and dysfunctional conflict?
affective: people attack eachothers personalities through criticism, threats, and insults
cognitive: conflict that results from disagreements over work-related issues such as meeting schedules, work assignments, processes, or the task itself
groupthink: extreme consensus in a group during a decision-making process due to :
-overestimation of the groups opinion
-pressures toward uniformity
what are the 3 sources of conflict?
1. agreement-- equitable and fair agreements are best
2. stronger relationships-- good agreements enable conflicting parties to build bridges of goodwill and trust for future use
3. learning-- functional conflict can promote greater self awareness and creative problem solving
what are the three desired outcomes of conflict?
#1-- interpersonal conflict: (personality conflict)
-interpersonal opposition driven by personal dislike or disagreement
--building relationships with people they dislike makes most managers uncomfortable
-conflict among work groups, teams, and departments
--cohesiveness can turn a group into a team
what are the two major forms of conflict?
the more the members of different groups interact, the less intergroup conflict they will experience
what is contact hypothesis?
what are the five conflict handling styles?
-shared leadership roles
-individual and mutual accountability
-collective work products
-complex and interdependent tasks
-clearly focused leader
-straightforward and interdependent tasks
-individual work products
what is the difference between teams vs work groups
1. forming stage: setting ground rules for team
2. storming: team members experience conflict about interpersonal issues and different perspectives
3. norming: encourage collaborative behavior, agreeing on roles, group cohesiveness forms
4. performing: team members adopt and play roles that enhance the activites of the group "lets do this together"
5. adjourning: when a team has completed its task and the team is disbanded. time to move on, sense of loss.
what is tuckmans five stage theory of group development?
tendency for individual effort to decline as group size increases
what is social loafing?
1. task roles:
-task-oriented group behavior
-keeps the group on track
2. Maintenance roles:
-relationship-building group behavior
-keep the group together
what are the two group member roles?
the desire, stimulus, or incentive to pursue a particular course of action
what is the definition of motivation?
caused by desire to attain specific outcomes
motivation caused by positive internal feelings
what is the difference between extrinsic and intrinsic rewards?
physiological needs--required for survival; food, water, shelter
safety needs-- secure and protected physical and emotional environment
belongingness needs-- affiliation such as family, friendships, and intimacy
esteem needs--self image, self confidence, achievement and respect
self- actualization-- desire to grow and develop into the best person he or she can be
what is maslows hierarchy of needs theory?
safety--> job security
belongingness--> inclusion & acceptance
esteem--> recognition & rewards
self-actualization--> job autonomy
how can the hierarchy of needs be applied to the work environment?
need for achievement--> need to set, meet, and exceed goals- desire to accomplish something difficult
Need for affiliation--> need to interact, socialize, and develop friendships
need for power--> need to seek opportunities for personalized power or to make an impact on and influence others
what is the acquired needs theory?
when people compare their circumstances with those of similar others and that this behavior motivates them to seek fairness in the way they are rewarded for performance
all is good, even
what is the equity theory?
positive--> other person drew short end of stick
negative--> i got the short end of the stick (comparison in which another person receives greater outcomes for similar inputs)
what is positive equity theory vs negative equity theory?
-an individuals tolerance for negative and postitive equity
-people have varying sensitivies to perceived equity and inequity
what is equity sensitivity?
benevolents: people who have a higher tolerance for negative inequity ... whatever!
sensitives: desire fairness, adhere to a strict norm of reciprocity and are quickly motivated to resolve both negative and positive inequity
have no tolerance for negative inequality
this is not fair!
what are benevolents and sensitives?
theory x: where managers think that employees genuinely dislike work and need to be constantly monitored and evaluated to ensure that they do what is expected
theory y: where managers think that employees are motivated to do their best and to work their potential and they actually like their work
what is theory x vs theory y?
-motivation caused by positive internal feelings
-caused by the desire to attain specific outcomes
core job characteristics:
-creating a job with characteristics of varying degrees to entice motivation
what is the three job characteristics model?
Sets with similar terms
Principles of Mgmt (WGU) Conflict & Change Mgmt Co…
Other sets by this creator
ERP & MRP
OPMT EXAM #3 Words