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Human Sexuality Chapter 9
Terms in this set (48)
Hysterical Paroxysm / Hysterical Crisis
Orgasm in women
Was considered a common disease in women. The symptoms were: anxiety,irritability, nervousness, pelvic swelling, heaviness in the abdomen, fainting, sexual fantasies and vaginal lubrication. Hysteria derives from the Greek word for "uterus". Sex and pregnancy would help with this condition. Masturbation was seen as deviant and unhealthful.
Masturbation / Onanism or Onania
Sexual self-stimulation. It is one of the principal forms of one-person sexual expression. It involves direct stimulation of the genitals, perhaps with the aid of artificial stimulation, such as vibrator.
Within Judeo-Christian tradition, masturbation has been condemned as sinful. Masturbation was prohibited under Jewish law.
A penis-shaped object used in sexual activity.
Coitus Interruptus / Withdraw Method
The practice of withdrawing the penis prior to ejaculation during sexual intercourse . "Spilling the seed" . This involved nonprocreative sex.
A cracker developed by Sylvester Graham in the 1830s. It was said to help people control their sexual impulses.
Dr. J.H. Kellogg was the creature of the modern breakfast cereal. Kellogg identified 39 "signs of masturbation" including acne, paleness, heart palpitations, rounded shoulders, weak backs and convulsions. He believed that sexual desires could be controlled by a diet of simple foods, especially grains, including the corn flakes that have since borne his name. Kellogg suggested that parents bandage or cage their children's genitals, or tie their hands.
He associated sexual desire with original sin. He did not see the sexual act itself as evil, but rather the lustful emotions that can accompany it. He offered comfort to virgins raped during the sack of Rome. He condemned the practice of abortion. The seriousness of abortion depended on the ensoulment status of the fetus- that is, whether or not it has received its soul at the time. He believed that males fetuses receive a soul at 40 days of gestation and female fetuses at 90 days.
Masturbation / Kinsey Report
Nearly all of the adult men and 2/3rds of women in the classic study reported that they masturbated at some time. Men masturbated more frequently than women. Many married people masturbate. Females and males with higher education masturbated more.Conservative Protestants are less likely to masturbate than liberal and moderate Protestants. African Americans are less likely to report masturbating over a 12 month period than other ethic groups. Male masturbation was thought to arrest the development of normal erotic instincts and led to erectile dysfunction with women. Thus it encouraged male-male sexual activity.
Sex therapist has used masturbation as a treatment for individuals with low sexual desire and for women who have difficulty reaching orgasm. Feelings of guilt can lower the incidence and frequency of masturbation.
Masturbation During Adolescence
Women who have masturbated during adolescence are more likely, to find gratification in sex with others in adulthood than women who had not. These people may be more open to exploring their sexuality. Masturbation during adolescence may also set the stage for sexual satisfaction in adulthood by providing information about the type of stimulation that lead to sexual gratification. Many times women reach orgasm or during masturbation than they do during sex.
Masturbation - Men
Most men report that they masturbate by manual manipulation of the penis. Some men use their whole hand while others us the thumb and index finger. A few men prefer to masturbate by rubbing the penis and testicles against clothing or bedding. Some men rub their genital against inflatable dolls. Some men strap vibrators to the backs of their hands. Electrical vibrators save labor but do not simulate the type of up and down motions of the penis that men favor. These are not used very often.
Most men use:
not sex-shop devices
Means semi-erect state of arousal
Masturbation - Women
Masters and Johnson reported never observing two women masturbate in precisely the same way. Even when the general technique was similar, women varied in tempo and style of their self-caresses.
-Most women masturbate by massaging the mons, labia minora and clitoral region with a circular or back and forth motions.
-Women typically achieve clitoral stimulation by rubbing or stroking the clitoral shaft or pulling or tugging on the vaginal lips.
-They may also massage other areas such as breast or nipples
-Many women like to fantasize during masturbation.
-Many women masturbate during baths, some spray their genitals with water jets.
Kinsey found that only 1 in 5 women inserted objects into the vagina during masturbation. Some women reported erotic pleasure from deep vaginal penetration.
Massage genitals in a way that can be erotic. Some women find this type of stimulation too intense and favor vibrators that strap to the back of the hand, helping the fingers vibrate during manual stimulation of the genitals. Unfortunately this may numb the hand attached to the vibrator.
Sex With Others
Partners feelings for one another and the quality of their relationships, may be stronger determinants of their sexual arousal and response than the techniques they employ.
- Communication is the most important " sexual" technique.
Physical interactions that are sexually stimulating and set the stage for intercourse.
Forms of non coital sex:
Kissing, genital touching and oral-genital contact may also be experienced as ends in themselves, not as preludes to sex.
Masters and Johnson noted sex differences with the respect to preferences in foreplay
*Men typically prefer direct stroking of their genitals by their partner early in lovemaking
*Women prefer their partners to caress their genitals after a period of general body contact that includes holding, hugging and non-genital massage.
*Men tend to be more genitally oriented than women
*Women are more likely to view sex within a broader framework of affection and love.
It is something like foreplay taken to the outer limits, which lead some to have a tantrum. Eastern Philosophies are the points of inspiration. They speak of releasing body energies and auras and herbs and ritual cleansing baths, massages and aromatics and healing.
Kissing is a nearly a universal part of lovemaking. Nonerotic kissing may also be used with relatives and friends. Kissing is now practiced in Japan because of the influence of Western culture, but was previously unknown there.
-Kissing may also be an affectionate gesture without erotic significance, as in kissing someone good-night.
-Some people kiss relatives or close friends on the lips
-Others limit kissing relatives on the cheek
-Sustained kissing on the lips and deep kissing are almost always erotic gestures.
-Other parts of the body that are often kissed are:
hands, feet, neck earlobes, insides of thighs and the genitals themselves.
-Kinsey found that 9 of 10 husbands kiss their wives breast. Women usually prefer several minutes of body contact and caressing before desiring tho have their partners kiss their breast, or suck or lick their nipples. They do not prefer sucking until highly aroused. They are afraid to tell their partner that sucking hurts because they do not want to disrupt their pleasure.
Balinese of Indonesia used to bring their faces close enough to each other to smell each other's perfume and feel the warmth of each other's skin. This has been dubbed "rubbing noses" by the Europeans.
Kissing / Simple
The partners keep their mouths closed. It may develop into caresses of the lips with the tongue, or into nibbling of the lower lip.
Kissing / Deep (french, or soul kissing)
The partners part their lips and insert their tongues into each other's mouths.
Hand holding can be sexually stimulating for couples who are sexually attracted to one another. Hands are rich in nerve endings.
-Touching is a common form of foreplay. Men and women generally prefer manual or oral stimulation of the genitals as a prelude to sex. Women prefer that caressing of the genitals be focused around the clitoris but not directly on the extremely sensitive clitoral glans.
Stimulation Of Genitals
Partners need to communicate their preferences.
The penis may also be gently rolled back and forth between the palms as if one were making a ball of clay into a sausage-increasing pressure as arousal progresses.
-If a finger is to be inserted into the vagina, it should be clean. Fingernails should be well trimmed. Inserting finger that have been in the anus into the vagina is dangerous.
Fingers may transfer microbes from the woman's digestive tract, where they do no harm, to the woman's reproductive tract, where they can cause serious infection.
The insertion of the fist or hand into the rectum, usually after the bowels have been evacuated with an enema.
-Fisting is more common among male-male than make-female couples and carries the risk of infection or injury to the rectum or anus.
-A survey of 75 gay men in Australia found that fisting was usually done with gloves, although fingering was not.
Is a pleasurable, intimate behavior by itself and need not necessarily lead to other sexual activities.
Stimulation Of The Breast
Masters and Johnson report that some women are capable of achieving orgasm from the stimulation of breast alone.
-Nipples are erotically sensitive in both sexes.
-Most women enjoy stimulation of the breast.
-Hands and mouth can be used to stimulate the breast and nipples, desired intensity of stimulation of the breast varies from person to person, partners need to communicate their preferences.
Stimulation of Breast - Gay Males
Gay men make more us of stimulation of their partner's nipples than heterosexual women do.
Gay men engage in sexual activities such as:
Masters and Johnson found that gay men spent a good deal of the time caressing their partner's bodies before approaching the genitals. After hugging and kissing, 31 or 42 gay male couples used oral or manual nipple stimulation.
Sexual techniques practiced by lesbians:
-manual or oral stimulation of breast
-manual or oral stimulation of genitals
The emotional components of lovemaking -gentle touching, cuddling, and hugging -are important elements of sexual sharing in lesbian relationships.
Manual genital stimulation is the most common and frequent activity among lesbian couples. Most lesbian couple engage in genital apposition. (positioning themselves so their genitals rub together)
-They spend a good deal of time holding, kissing and caressing before approaching the breast or genitals.
-Lesbians are less genitally oriented and less fixated on orgasm than men.
Heterosexual males tend to move quickly to stimulate their partners' breast or start directly with genital stimulation.
They position themselves so as to rub their genitals together rhythmically.
Males - Fellatio
Female - Cunnilingus
Oral-genital stimulation has increased dramatically since Kinsey's day especially among young married couples. 60% of college-educated couples
-3 out of 4 men or 77% had an active part
-2 out of 3 women or 68% had an active part
-4 out of 5 men or 79% were recipients
-3 out of 4 or 73% were recipients
80% of men & 71% of women performed oral sex
80% of men & 74% of women received oral sex
Oral sex is the norm for today's young couples. The majority of young couples report participating in this form of sexual expression. In Kinseys sample of young European American Women (ages 18-36) only half of reported engaging in oral sex.
Swallowing semen is not harmful to ones health unless the man has an infection that can be transferred via semen. Oral contact with an infected partner, even without semen, can transmit harmful organisms.
Oral stimulation of male genitals. Also called "blow job" "sucking" "sucking off" "giving head". Comes from the Latin word meaning "to suck".
Oral stimulation of the vulva with the mouth. The slang terms are "eating" and "going down" on her.
The mouth stimulates the penis because it contains warm, moist mucous membranes, as does the vagina. Muscles of the mouth and jaw can vary pressure and movements.
-Some people gag
-Relaxing throat muscles would help
Oral sex - Demographic Factors
As with masturbation the incidence of oral sex correlates with the level of education. Highly educated individuals are more likely to have practiced oral sex.
-education may encourage experimentation
-education dispels myths
-African American are less likely to have oral sex and to masturbate. They may adhere to strictly to traditional ideas as to what kinds of sexual behavior are and are not proper.
-African Americans in other surveys are also less likely than European American to have performed or received oral sex.
A woman can be highly aroused by her partner's tongue because it is soft, moist and warm. Compared to a finger a tongue can almost never be too harsh. This form of stimulation is very intense that may people find it to be the best means of achieving orgasm.
The term sixty-nine describes simultaneous oral-genital stimulation. The two numbers 6 and 9 because they resemble two partners who are upside down and facing each other.
- The 69 position has the psychologically positive feature of allowing couple to experience simultaneous stimulation. but it can be awkward if two people are not similar in size.
-Some couples avoid 69 because it deprives each partner of the opportunity to focus fully on receiving or providing sexual pleasure.
Abstaining From Oral Sex
Despite the popularity of oral sex among couples today, many people choose to abstain. Some people are concerned about cleanliness. Away to avoid these issues is wash before hand. They may abstain because of embarrassment.
-Some people do not care for the taste of semen or find it repulsive.
** Semen tastes salty and a similar texture of egg whites. It is impossible to get pregnant by swallowing semen. It is not fattening (it has about 5 calories)
Sexual Intercourse / coitus
From the latin word coire, meaning "go together". It is sexual activity in which the penis is inserted into the vagina. Each position of sexual intercourse must allow the genital to be aligned so that the penis is contained in the vagina.
-In addition to varying positions, couples also vary the depth and rate of thrusting and additional sexual stimulation.
Sexual Intercourse - The Male-Superior Position (Man on Top)
The male-superior position ("superiority" is used purely in relation to body position, but has sometimes been taken as a symbol of male domination). It is also called the Missionary Position.
-In this position the partners face one another. The man lies above the woman, perhaps supporting himself on his hands and knees rather than applying his full weight against his partner. Movement is is easier for the man than the woman, which suggest that he is responsible for directing their activity.
- The woman most times will guide the penis into the vagina. The woman needs to be comfortable enough to "take charge" during lovemaking.
** Advantage of this position is that the couple is able to be face each other so that kissing is easier. The woman is able to stroke her partner, but this position makes it difficult for the man to caress his partner while supporting himself with his hands.
-This position can be highly stimulation to the man, which can make it difficult for him delay ejaculation.
-This position limits the opportunity for the woman to control the angle, rate, and depth of penetration.
- It may be hard for her to receive the stimulation in order to have an orgasm.
This position is not advisable during late stages of pregnancy. At that time the woman's distended abdomen would force the man to arch severely above her, lest he place undue pressure on her abdomen.
Sexual Intercourse - The Female Superior Position
The couple faces each other with the woman on top. The woman is able to control the angle of penile entry and the depth of thrusting. Some women sit while others lay on top. Many women vary their position.
In this position the woman is psychologically, and to some degree physically in charge.
-kissing is easy
-This position facilitates orgasm in the woman.
-It is less stimulating for the male so it may delay ejaculation
This position is commonly used by couples who are learning to overcome sexual difficulties.
Sexual Intercourse - The Lateral-Entry Position (Side-Entry)
In lateral- entry position, the man and woman lie side by side, facing on another,
-This position has the advantages of allowing each partner relatively free movement and easy access to each other.
-They can kiss freely
-Stroke each other with their free arm
-This position is not physically taxing, because both partners are resting easily on the bedding.
-This is an excellent position for prolonged sex or for couples when they are tired.
-Inserting the penis into the vagina while lying on your side may be awkward
-Both partners have an arm beneath them that might fall asleep or become numb.
-Women may not receive enough clitoral stimulation from the penis in this position.
-It may be difficult to achieve deeper penetration of the penis.
It is useful during pregnancy (at least during the final stages
Sexual Intercourse - The Rear-Entry Position
In the rear-entry position the man faces the woman's rear. The woman supports herself on her hands and knees while the man supports himself on his knees, entering her from behind. In another, the couple lie alongside one and the woman lifts one leg, draping it backward over her partner's thigh. This position is good during pregnancy.
-This position may be highly stimulating to both partners
-This is the position that mammals use to mate. They is why it is called "doggy style". This may make some couples uncomfortable.
-It is impersonal, which may create a sense of emotional distance.
-The man is very much in charge in this position
-The penis doesn't adequately stimulate the clitoris
-The penis tends to pop out of the vagina in this position
-Air tends to enter the vagina during sex in this position, which could result in an embarrassing sound.
Sexual Intercourse - Anal
Anal intercourse is the insertion of the penis in the rectum. It is practice by male-male and male-female couples. The rectum is highly sensitive to sexual stimulation. Both partners may reach orgasm through anal sex. It is referred to as "Greek culture" or lovemaking "Greek Style" because of male bisexuality in Greece.
This is also the major act that comes under the legal definition of sodomy.
-The rectum doesn't produce any lubrication so couples are advised to use K-Y jelly.
-People often want a finger in the anus at the height of passion or at the moment of orgasm. A finger in the rectum can heighten sexual sensation because the sphincters contract during orgasm.
-Many couples are repulsed by the idea of anal intercourse. They view it as unnatural,immoral, or risky.
** The NHSLS found that 1 out of 4 men (26%) and 1 out 5 (20%) reported having engaged in anal sex at sometime. Only 1in 10 (10% men and 9% women) had engaged in anal sex with in the past year.
-Highly educated people participated in anal sex
Education seems to be the liberating influence in sexual experimentation.
-Religion is a restraint on anal sex (34% men and 36% women that had anal sex didn't have any religion)
Fear of diseases: HIV/AIDS, gonorrhea, syphilis, and hepatitis
Cells in the rectum are very susceptible to infection by some microorganisms, small tears in the rectal tissue could allow other microbes to enter the blood system. If both partners are STI free there is no risk of contracting STIs.
The incidences of anal sex have declined because of HIV, but now that the HAART - Highly Active
antiretroviral Therapy- is prolonging lives with HIV many gay males are not using condoms again. (usually this happens after drinking and when the partner is a stranger.)
Oral Stimulation if the anus. Kissing or licking the anus. Slang: rimming or rim job.
Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy- is prolonging lives with HIV
People may uses sexual fantasies either when they are alone or with someone to heighten sexual excitement.
-Sexual fantasies may be experience without sexual behavior, as in erotic daydreams.
- People who fantasize about sex a less likely to have enjoyable sex lives.
-One study showed that 98% of men and 80% of women reported sexual fantasies about someone other than their partner. Women are more likely to fantasize about a prior sex partner because of they have less of a need to stray from familiar relationships.
Researchers use the frequency and variety of sexual fantasies as one measure of sex drive. The sex drive and frequency of sexual fantasies- is related to testosterone levels in both the male and females.
Themes of fantasies during sex: making love to a different partner, group sex, orgies, images of past lovers or special erotic experience, and making love in fantastic and wonderful places.
Sexual Fantasies - Deviant
Fantasies about sadistic rape. Research with the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI), a commonly used personality test, suggest that men with frequent deviant sexual fantasies are more likely to be socially isolated and commonly unstable.
Sexual Fantasies - Lesbian, Gay and Bisexuals
A study conducted in India showed that Gay males are more likely to fantasize abut exploratory techniques with both sexes. Fantasies mirrored behavior. The heterosexual males were more "inhibited " or "restricted" in both their sex lives and their fantasies. They were fantasizing about the people and activities that enticed them.